Artists and Painters
As California went through the transition from the Spanish held Mission
system, to the Mexican Government, to Statehood, the Mission system went through a period of neglect as it was separated from the Catholic Church in Spain - both financially and politically. In this period of decline, the Missions began to crumble, and the artists drawn to the region discovered these crumbling adobe walls, mossy red tile roofs, and quiet cool interior cloisters ( courtyards surrounded by arched walk ways ) excellent subjects for paintings, drawings and etchings.
Henry Miller sketched the California Missions in 1856
Deakin painted them in the same period.
An available sample of Deakinís work shows his painting
of a Mission to the north of the Channel, and he also painted the Channel
missions, although those paintings are not yet available
for Internet viewers.
Today James Whistler is best known for his classic American portrait of
his mother in a rocking chair. But in his time, Whistler was also employed as an engraver for the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey project. In 1854, soon after California became a state, Whistler was given the assignment to render an engraving of the east end of Anacapa Island. His pay rate was then $1.50 a day. Although he never visited the island, Whistler completed his assignment presumably from photographs and drawings taken by other artists. And he added a finishing touch that was soon to jeopardize his job. Over the Arch Rock on the engraving, Whistler added two flock of seagulls flying in V-formation. This artistic license was not appreciated by his employers, and he was subsequently fired from his position. When the drawing was reproduced again two years later, the seagulls were removed. Marsha Daily, President of The Santa Cruz Island Foundation, now owns a first edition engraved print that shows the original two flocks of seagulls hovering gracefully above the rocky island. The original as engraved by Whistler, while being an accurate scientific document, also captures some of the romance of the island thanks to the inclusion of those controversial birds, a reminder island wildlife.
1890s - early 1900s
When the Southern Pacific Railroad reached Southern California in the
1880s, the Railroad began developing a marketing campaign to attract East Coast Americans to the West, via train, for vacation adventures. The Railroad commissioned paintings by American artists to use as promotional images to attract passengers to the railroad, and to the Channel region. With this wide public promotion of the region as a vacation destination, more and more painters made their way to the Channel region. New magazine devoted to Western Life also began to be published and developed a national audience, such as Sunset Magazine, which also commissioned artists works for its colorful covers, further spreading news of the exciting and beautiful lands bordering the Pacific.
The Channel region came to be home to the California Art Club which was
a professional painters organization formed in 1909 in response to the need of local artists to showcase their work to the public. The Club grew out of the fact that there was already a colony of artists painting the Southern California landscape, and we will next take a look at their lives and work. Recommended reading about this time period in California air is the book California Light 1900-1930.
Edgar Alwin Payne (1883-1947)
Edgar Alwin Payne was born in Washburn, Missouri. He moved to
California in 1909 and maintained studios in Laguna Beach and Los Angeles. The artist traveled extensively throughout the Sierras and Europe. He is recognized as one of the artists who painted on the Channel Islands, specifically Catalina.
Granville Redmond (1871-1935)
Granville Redmond was one of the most well known artists painting
California at the turn of the century. He painted for the Southern Pacific Railroad, as well as private works. His paintings are of Europe, Central America and California, and he is recognized as having painted on Catalina. Granville was deaf, and overcame his handicap to become a well respected painter in the California Impressionist style.
Elmer Wachtel (1864-1929)
Elmer Wachtel was born in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1892, he moved to San
Gabriel, California. In 1900, Wachtel went to New York City where he studied at the Art Students League. After marrying artist Marion Kavanaugh in 1904, they moved to Pasadena. They painted together until his sudden death on a painting trip to Guadalajara, Mexico. He and his wife are known to have painted on Catalina.
Marion K. Wachtel (1876-1954)
Marion K. Wachtel was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin into an artistic
family. Her great grandfather was a Royal Academician in London. Wachtel
studied at the AIC and with William Merritt Chase. She excelled in both watercolor and oil and her paintings today are highly popular and eagerly sought on both the East and West coasts. She painted with her husband on Catalina.
Edward Borein (1872 - 1945)
John Edward Borein (1872 - 1945) was the oldest of five children of the
deputy sheriff of San Leandro, a town along one of the California cattle
trails. Shortly after Edward's birth, the family moved to nearby Oakland, a major center in the cattle industry. Borein's artistic inclinations became evident almost immediately; he was sketching at the tender age of five, before most children can write. The subjects available to him during his childhood--cowboys, Hispanic vaqueros, longhorn cattle, horses--determined his lifelong interests. Perhaps contrary to what one might expect in the rough environment of a cattle town, Borein was encouraged by his family to pursue art studies. His formal education at the San Francisco Art Association Art School, however, lasted just one month before he decided to give it up to become a cowboy.
Beginning in 1893, Borein worked ranches up and down the California
coast. He became a proficient roper and rider, and seemed to have no regrets about choosing such a harsh life. He also developed skills in saddlemaking and lasso-braiding, which came as no surprise to those who were familiar with the breadth of his creative talents. He continued to sketch and found ample reinforcement in his itinerant new life for his childhood experiences with cowboy and ranch life subjects. Trips to Mexico provided him with still more variations on this theme and planted the seed for his interest in Hispanic subjects.
One of the earliest appearances of his work in print was in The Land
of Sunshine magazine in August, 1896, work that he had submitted only after strong encouragement from his impressed cowhand acquaintances. His work would appear in this magazine often, and his friendship with the magazine's founder, Charles Fletcher Lummis, would last until the latter's death.
It was also during the 1890s that Borein began to try his hand at
watercolor, a medium that he found somewhat discouraging. The painterly
potential of the medium eluded him at first, but he persisted until his very last years when he finally achieved notable success with it. Although Borein tried his hand at oil painting, as well as the traditional illustrators' medium of pen-and-ink, he never excelled as a painter in the way that he did as a draftsman and printmaker. He virtually gave up oil painting after comparing his work unfavorably with C. M. Russell's, feeling he would never improve enough to match Russell's skill in that medium.
The years around the turn of the twentieth century brought many changes
in the ranching life of coastal California. The fencing of the remaining open ranges, the gradual containment of Native Americans on reservations, the replacement of the longhorn by less aesthetically inspiring breeds of cattle, and the diminishing importance of the Spanish mission influence were changes that began to take the luster out of California ranch life for Borein. By 1900 he had returned to his childhood home in Oakland and established an artist's studio in his parents' house. A few more trips and a rented studio later, Borein gave up once and for all the unsettled life of a professional cowboy. This was in 1904, when he began to work in earnest as an illustrator for bay area newspapers and magazines, including Sunset Magazine. He also worked as a sign painter to help pay the bills. The speed with which artists had to prepare work for newspapers and the monochrome, linear quality of illustrations at that time influenced Borein significantly in his later work.
On the recommendation of friends, Borein moved to New York in 1907 to
immerse himself in the fast-paced illustrators' world. He did this with an open mind and consequently learned much from his colleagues that benefited his art. Though thought of primarily as a Western (specifically a Californian) artist, Borein actually spent twelve of the most productive and rewarding years of his career in the East. If Borein can be described as self-taught, it was during his New York years that he "studied" most diligently.
Borein's familiarity with the perennially popular Western subjects kept
him busy professionally, and his personable nature won him many friends. His tiny Manhattan studio, cluttered with Western memorabilia, became a mecca for artists and other displaced Westerners. Perhaps the most significant development during the New York years was Borein's brief formal training at the Art Students' League in the medium of etching. His mastery of this technique would ultimately set his life's work apart from his peers in American Western art. It was also in New York, in 1915 and 1917, that Borein had very successful one-man exhibitions that gave his career a noteworthy boost.
Borein took to the medium of etching as few Western artists have, no
doubt attracted to it in part because of its potential to provide a steady
income from print sales. It must have seemed like the logical step from his experience in pen-and-ink drawing.
Nearly 400 different etchings by Borein are now documented, though
precise numbers will probably never be known. Borein did not routinely sign or number his etchings, and surviving examples exhibit a variety of signatures and penciled remarques. His mastery of this medium reveals a concern for strong design and rhythmic, eye-catching compositions consistent with his training as an illustrator. Many prints display a near-abstract sense of patterning in compositions in which the line quality varies for aesthetic rather than descriptive purposes.
Although Borein did produce the occasional aquatint and made rewarding
use of the drypoint needle, he was not one to deviate far from the tried and true methods of basic etching. Instead of technical experimentation and bewildering variety, he preferred to work within the spectrum of linear "color" available to the traditional etcher. Adobe, fur, rock, leather, the leaves of a tree, a red tile roof--all are suggested by a surprising economy of means. He recognized the essentially linear and monochromatic nature of the medium. He was also able to transfer the freshness and spontaneity of execution characteristic of pen-and-ink drawing to many of his etchings--quite remarkable given the fact that etchings demand by nature a more deliberate approach.
Borein maintained friendships with many Western artists, including C M.
Russell, Maynard Dixon, Olaf Seltzer, and Jimmy Swinnerton, as well as a wide circle of New York illustrators. Borein's art benefited from his close contact with Russell and Dixon in particular. He also had long-standing friendships with other celebrities, including Jack London, Teddy Roosevelt, Annie Oakley, "Buffalo Bill" Cody, Will Rogers, and many people involved in the early Western film industry. His ties to the West were thus nourished, and, after several short trips back, he returned to California permanently in 1919.
California had been his home from birth, and though he studied in New
York in his thirties and was well traveled within the Southwestern United States and Mexico, it is to California that the bulk of his work relates. Borein's fascination with the Spanish Colonial missions that pepper California forms a chapter in his career that distinguishes him--if nothing else had done--from other American Western artists
Borein married for the first time in 1921, at the age of 48, and moved
with his new wife Lucille to Santa Barbara. He remained there for the rest of his life as a prolific and successful independent artist, managing several studios, teaching at the local art school, and producing vast quantities of etchings, drawings, and watercolors. His documented watercolors alone number over 1,000. Particularly in the 1930s, Borein produced watercolors with sparkling, vivid colors and a mastery of the tonal qualities of the medium. After his earlier, less successful forays into the medium, this was a triumph for him.
In all of his work, Borein's concern was to convey a flavor of
authenticity without pretension, factual fussiness, or complex aesthetic effects. He conjured his subjects from his imagination, but they were based in the concrete facts of the life he lived and observed. He interpreted rather than copied his world, and never allowed his concern for accurate detail to overwhelm the drama and impact of a composition. He used the camera (including the motion-picture camera) as an aide-memoir, but never as an indispensable tool.
Borein's sense of commitment was essentially more documentary than
aesthetic, his goal being to capture a way of life as he knew it, and not to romanticize or sentimentalize. Yet, in documenting the life of the vaquero or the appearance of the California missions, he did not merely catalog a dry assortment of facts. He invested his images with his own very personal affection for the entire atmosphere, both material and immaterial, of the West and Southwest. Consistent with these aims, he depicted Native Americans not with minute ethnographic accuracy, but to convey a sense of "Indianness" as conceived of by the Anglo-American viewer to whom most of his published work was directed. Nevertheless, factual accuracy in the material details he chose to depict was deeply important to him. Many of his contemporaries, as well as present-day observers of his work, find most compelling his devotion to getting the details right.
Borein developed a readily identifiable personal style, which sets his
work apart from that of the many artists who devoted themselves to similar subject matter. His style actually seems to communicate the sun-drenched aridity of the desert and the open range, the largeness of the landscape, and the volatile spark that animates the inhabitants. Warm colors predominate in his watercolors, and compositions lacking the high noon clarity of broad daylight are rare in any of his favored media.