Ask-A-Scientist Trail Guide Chat



Camp Internet Explorers Team: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:31AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Welcome to Camp Internet's Annual CHANNEL ISLANDS Ask-a-Scientist chat with Trail Guide Dr. John Johnson of the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History................ We will have classroom questions and answers posted at the top of the room -- please look through these to get started. Then post a 'hello' to let us know your class has arrived, using the message box at the bottom with your name and school name in the Your Handle box.......... You are invited to then post your own questions for Dr. Johnson, and can go up and read through the previous questions and answers while he works to post answers to your live questions............... Hint: To get back to the top to read through earlier postings, place 500 in the 'scroll back' box and click 'chat' button.

Camp Internet Explorers Team: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:44AM PST (-0800 GMT)
NEWS FLASH: Dr. Johnson is involved in many fascinating research projects - two of the more recent are: 1. Visiting collections of Native California artificats in France to arrange for an exhibition of these rare pieces in California for the first time ..... 2. Researching prehistroic and histroic Native life on the Islands, and re-dating the discovery of what is currently the oldest human remains found in North America - from Arlington Springs on Santa Rosa Island.

Camp Internet Explorers Team: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:45AM PST (-0800 GMT)
FIRST FEATURE - Questions about the French collections:

Camp Classrooms: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:46AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Camp Classrooms ask: 1. Where are these collections and what do they contain?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:47AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Most of the French collections that contain California Indian artifacts have been preserved at the Musée de l’Homme (the Museum of Mankind) in Paris. They will soon be transferred to a new museum that is being built alongside the Seine River near the Eiffel Tower. .................. Some of the most interesting artifacts include some rare woven belts decorated with shell disk bead geometric designs and red feathers from woodpeckers and other birds. The beads came from Chumash Indian beadmakers on the Channel Islands, but the belts themselves were made by Indians from tribes in Central California, probably Miwok or Patwin Indians who lived in the Sacramento Valley. They had obtained the beads through trade with other tribes who had gotten them from the Chumash................ Other items in the French collection include rare wooden bowls and elaborately woven baskets made by the Chumash and other California Indians............... Finally, there are a number of artifacts made from shell, bone, and stones that were excavated originally on the Channel Islands.

Camp Classrooms: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:47AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Who were the anthropologists who gathered the artifacts and when/where were they in early California?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:48AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Some of the objects, like the beaded belts, were collected when California was part of Mexico, perhaps during a French exploring expedition by Du Petit Thoars, who visited Monterey in 1837. The wooden bowls, baskets, and archaeological artifacts were obtained by the French scientists Léon de Cessac and Alphonse Pinart. They came to California in 1877-1879 and visited among California Indians, especially the Chumash............... Léon de Cessac conducted archaeological excavations on the Channel Islands, particularly Santa Cruz Island, the Anacapa Islands, San Miguel Island, and San Nicolas Island. He also worked with Rafael Solares, the chief of the Santa Ynez Chumash Indians and learned about Chumash culture and history from him. Rafael Solares told Cessac that the name of the Santa Ynez tribe in their own language was “Samala.”............... Alphonse Pinart excavated in some shell mounds near San Francisco and at an old village site near Tulare Lake in the San Juoaquin Valley, but he was mostly interested in the Indian languages and wrote down word lists from elderly Indians, who in some cases were the last people to still speak their languages.

Camp Classrooms: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:49AM PST (-0800 GMT)
What was from San Nicolas Island and does it classify as Chumash or Tongva, or other ?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:50AM PST (-0800 GMT)
The Indians of San Nicolas Island were not Chumash Indians. They spoke a different language believed to have been related to the Gabrielino or Tongva language spoken on Santa Catalina Island and the region around Los Angeles. The Chumash Indians called the tribe of San Nicolas Island “Niminokotch,” and the name of the island itself, they called “Halashat.” ................ Léon de Cessac collected some interesting artifacts from San Nicolas Island. He excavated a whole series of stone effigies carved to look like whales, fish, and birds. These were used in rainmaking ceremonies and other rituals by the shamans (medicine men)............... Another item that Cessac collected was a clay pipe that originally had made by the Kumeyay Indians who lived in the San Diego area. This shows that the native Nicoleños had trade relations with Indians who lived far to the south.

Camp Classrooms: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:50AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Is there an exhibit of these artifacts planned for California?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:50AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Yes. We have permission from the people in charge of the French museum collections to borrow the artifacts after their new museum opens in June 2006. It will probably take us that long anyway to plan the displays and obtain the money necessary to package the artifacts and build the exhibits.

Camp Internet Explorers Team: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:51AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Feature Two - Chumash Studies

Camp Classrooms - LAUSD: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:52AM PST (-0800 GMT)
What would you say as one of the most outstanding achievements of the Chumash tribe in the past?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:52AM PST (-0800 GMT)
The Chumash are most noted for their canoes built of planks of wood. They would split boards from redwood and pine logs that washed ashore as driftwood along the beaches. They would used sharkskin as sandpaper to smooth the boards. After fitting the planks together with tar and pine pitch glue, they would drill pairs of holes on either side of the seam and then tie the boards securely together with fiber rope. The holes and rope would then been sealed with the tar-pine pitch glue. The resulting boat, called “tomol” by the Chumash was one of their most outstanding achievements.

Camp Classrooms - LAUSD: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:53AM PST (-0800 GMT)
How many Chumash are there now and are they mostly in California?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:53AM PST (-0800 GMT)
There are probably approximately 5,000 people who are of Chumash ancestry, most of whom live in south central California.

Camp Classrooms - LAUSD: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:54AM PST (-0800 GMT)
How do the Chumash use their culture in their daily lives now? (I did see in the Santa Barbara area a Chumash medical center which used herbs and holistic treatment.)

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:54AM PST (-0800 GMT)
A number of Chumash Indians keep their culture alive in their daily lives by decorating their homes with pictures and items like baskets that remind them of their Native American background. Some Chumash Indians are learning the language of their ancestors by studying with professional linguists. Others are learning basket weaving using traditional materials and methods. Still others are making shell bead necklaces, gaming pieces, stone carvings, shell fishhooks and other items. They come to museums, like the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, to study the artifacts made by their ancestors that exist in museum collections………………… The Urban Indian Health Center in Santa Barbara uses modern medical methods to help all Indians who live in the area, not just Chumash Indians. This clinic publishes a newsletter that sometimes provides information about traditional uses of herbs as medicine.

Camp Classrooms: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:55AM PST (-0800 GMT)
How has the scientific community responded to the redating of the Arlington Springs Woman and its impact on migration theories?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:55AM PST (-0800 GMT)
We have used radiocarbon-dating of the charcoal in the soil layers above and beneath the layer where Arlington Springs Woman’s bones were found to determine that she lived between 13,200 and 13,500 years ago. This was still about 3,000 years before the end of the Ice Age. The response from the scientific community has been very positive, because we have carefully conducted our work and shared the results at archaeological meetings and in publications. The fact that Arlington Springs Woman lived on an island shows that she had to have a means of travel across water. This shows that the earliest Native Americans could have used watercraft in their migration down the North American Pacific coast from Siberia and Alaska.

Camp Classrooms - Baca Community School on the Navajo Reservation: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:56AM PST (-0800 GMT)
How long did the Chumash inhabit the islands?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:57AM PST (-0800 GMT)
We don’t know when the first people speaking a Chumash language arrived on the Channel Islands. There is some evidence in the vocabulary and sentence structure of the Island Chumash language to indicate that it represents a merging of two Indian languages. So it is possible that there was a more ancient people who became established on the Channel Islands and that they later intermarried and merged with people speaking a Chumash language, so the two languages became one. Our English language is similar to this because it contains many words that came from Latin-speaking Romans and later French-speaking peoples who came to England and established themselves among its Anglo-Saxon-speaking population.

Camp Classrooms - Baca Community School on the Navajo Reservation: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:57AM PST (-0800 GMT)
What was the earliest date of inhabitance?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:58AM PST (-0800 GMT)
People arrived on the Channel Islands a little before 13,000 years ago. Arlington Springs Woman was among the earliest colonizers. At that time, the sea level was lower than it is today and the islands were united together as one large island.

Camp Classrooms - Baca Community School on the Navajo Reservation: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 7:58AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Where did the Chumash originally come from?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 8:00AM PST (-0800 GMT)
The Chumash legends state that their ancestors originally lived on the Channel Islands, and then they later came to the mainland by crossing the water on a rainbow bridge …….. Scientific evidence suggests that Native Americans descended from peoples who migrated to the North American continent during the last 5,000 years of the “Ice Age” (also called the Pleistocene). There are several lines of evidence to demonstrate this. One of the most convincing indicators is that American Indians share many genetic traits with native peoples of parts of Asia, pointing to that region as the place from which the ancestors of American Indians ultimately came.

Marcy, Ed Dir for Camp Internet: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:15AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Hello Campers - we welcome you to begin posting questions and to read through the questions above sent in by classrooms in advance fo the live session. And thanks to Dr. Johnson for his special contributions each year - this really helps Camp Internet students get in touch with real world experts and make fascinating discoveries!

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:27AM PST (-0800 GMT)
wooden bowl from the French collections

Morgana, PHS: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:28AM PST (-0800 GMT)
What kind of whales did they carve - blue, humpback, grey or orcas?

Ayami, PHS: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:28AM PST (-0800 GMT)
What is your favorite artifact that you have ever found?

Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:29AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Hello Dr. Johnson

Taliesin, PHS: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:29AM PST (-0800 GMT)
What was the first artifact you ever found (not counting rock art)?

Morgana, PHS: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:31AM PST (-0800 GMT)
How does anyone know what the carvings were made for?

: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:31AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Hello, Kids. I will try to answer as many questions as I can, but I may not have time to answer them all.

Taliesin, PHS: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:32AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Did he meet the real Karana from Island of Blue dolphins?

Ayami, PHS: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:33AM PST (-0800 GMT)
What ceremonies and dances do the Chumash do today? Or festivals ? Or canoe races?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:34AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Morgana's question: The whale carvings that were made by the Nicoleño Indians are not very exact, so it is hard to tell what species they are. Some of them look like they could be blue or grey whales, others look like orcas.

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:36AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Location where new Museum in France will be built.

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:37AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Ayami's question: My favorite artifacts that I have found were two baskets that had been stored in a small cavity in a rock outcropping way back in the mountains. I reported these to the Forest Service and then we later had an official expedition to excavate them from the sandy floor of the rock shelter.

Kody@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:38AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Dr. Johnson are you ever scared about your job?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:39AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Shell Artifacts in French Collections - can you name the type of shell ?

Kevin@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:40AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Have you ever seen dinasour fossils, in California

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:40AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Taliesin's question about Karana. The character of Karana is based on a real person, the "Lone Woman" of San Nicolas Island. We know very little about her life, because after she lived 18 years alone on San Nicolas Island and then was found and brought to Santa Barbara, she only lived a little over a mont before she became sick and died. There were no Indians in Santa Barbara who understood her language. She died in 1853 and was given the name "Juana Maria" on her deathbed.

Mohammed@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:41AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Why did you choose France?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:43AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Kevin's question: Most of California was under the ocean at the time that the dinosaurs lived, so we don't find dinosaur fossils in our state. However, paleontologists have found swimming reptiles like plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs in California. I am not a paleontologist, I am an anthropologist and archaeologist who studies California Indians, so I can't answer too many questions about dinosaurs.

Xavier@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:44AM PST (-0800 GMT)
What was the coolest fossil you found?

Ms. Flores@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:44AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Have you ever searched for fossils right here in Santa Monica?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:45AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Mohammed's question about why we went to France. For many, many years, we knew about Leon de Cessac and his expedition to Santa Barbara and the Channel Islands in 1877-79. He never wrote very much about his discoveries or the collections he brought back to France. We wanted to see these collections and organize an exhibit so people in California could see them first hand.

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:47AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Xavier's and Ms. Flores's questions: As I said in my reply to Kevin, I am not a paleontologist, so I do not search for animal fossils. I am an archaeologist and anthropologist and I specialize in the study of California Indians.

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:47AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Belt made with Chumash shells from French Collections

Kody@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:49AM PST (-0800 GMT)
How do you know the difference of boy and girl bones you find?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:49AM PST (-0800 GMT)
my Associate, Jan Timbrook, examining a California Basket from the French Collection

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:49AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Does anyone have questions about California Indians?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:50AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Rafael, a Chumash who shared cultural knowledge with Anthropologists in the 1800s

Camp Classrooms - LAUSD: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:51AM PST (-0800 GMT)
How can you tell baskets are Chumash?

Camp Classrooms - LAUSD: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:51AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Did early explorers report seeing rock art ?

Camp Classrooms - LAUSD: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:52AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Have you ever seen the Chumash do a rain dance ?

Camp Classrooms - LAUSD: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:52AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Did the French Anthropologists meet people on San Nicholas - if so - how did they communicate with them?

Xavier and Ms. Flores@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:52AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Are you aware of any Indian cultures in the Santa Monica Los Angeles area that are the same or different from the Chumash?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:54AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Kody's question about how to tell the difference between bones of boys and girls. A scientist who studies human bones is a physical anthropologist. Only the bones of grown-ups can be told apart whether they are men or women. Men have larger diameter leg bones than women. In their skulss, they have prominent brow ridges over their eyes, while women have smooth brows. Men tend to have square jaws, while women's jaws come to more of a point. Men's hip bones are not as broad as women's. These are just a few of the differences. There are many others.

Xavier and Ms. Flores@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:55AM PST (-0800 GMT)
How do you know where on the island to look for articfacts

Olivia@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:56AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Do you study other Indians besides the Chumash

Kody@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:57AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Have you done any mountain reserach, like Big Bear?

Mohammed@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:58AM PST (-0800 GMT)
What kind of God did the Chumash have?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:58AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to the question about how to tell whether a basket is Chumash. Chumash baskets are made with particular materials, techniques, and designs that were not used by other tribes. For example, the Chumash used a plant called Juncus textilis (commonly called "Basketry rush") for their coiled baskets. Other Southern California tribes sometimes used this plant too, but in addition the other tribes added Deer Grass, which was not generally used by the Chumash. So if a basket is made only from Basketry Rush, then it is probably Chumash.

Ms. Johnson@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 10:59AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Last year you spoke about burial and weddings are there any other cultural activties that the Chumash did that we do?

Camp Classrooms - LAUSD: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:00AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Is the basket in the picture a Chuamsh Basket ?

Ms. Johnson@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:00AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Have you ever heard of the Chocolate Lady story? We learned of it on a field trip to the MTA.

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:01AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Olivia's question about whether I study other tribes. Yes, I have studied a number of tribes in southern California. In fact I work frequently with Luiseño Indians, Yokuts Indians, Kitanemuk Indians, and Fernandeño Indians. I also am familiar with many Cahuilla Indians, Kumeyay Indians, Tubatulabal Indians, and Kawaiisu Indians. There were many tribes in Southern California, and each spoke its own different language.

Marcy Montgomery, Camp Internet Ed Dir: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:02AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Grant Elemen - What is the Chocolate Lady Story ?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:04AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to the question: "Is the basket in the picture a Chuamsh Basket?" That is a very good question. In fact this basket puzzled us when we saw it in the French collections. Although the basket is made of basketry rush, it does not look like a Chumash basket because it is missing some of the design features that Chumash baskets have. It does bear some resemblance in its design to some of the Cahuilla baskets, but we are not sure it is Cahuilla because of the materials used. It could be a rare Gabrielino (Tongva) basket.

Ms. Johnson@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:04AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Have you ever heard of the Chocolate Lady story? We learned of it on a field trip to the MTA.

Marcy Montgomery, Camp Internet Ed Dir: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:05AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Dr. Johnson, I recall seeing in my reserach a mention that the artifacts, bone structure, and hair / skin coloring of the peoples Cessac met on San Nicolas seemed to be different than those on the other islands. Was this actually in his writings ? And if so, what were his conclusions?

Xavier and Ms. Flores@ Ms. Johnson's Class@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:06AM PST (-0800 GMT)
How do you know where on the island to look for articfacts

American History Explorers Team: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:07AM PST (-0800 GMT)
What ceremonies and dances do the Chumash do today? Or festivals ? Or canoe races? That carry on the old ways ?

Ms. Johnson@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:07AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Have you ever heard of the Chocolate Lady story? We learned of it on a field trip to the MTA.

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:08AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Xavier and Ms. Flores's question: "Are you aware of any Indian cultures in the Santa Monica Los Angeles area that are the same or different from the Chumash?" Yes, the Indians of the Santa Monica area were the Gabrielino Indians, sometimes called "Tongva." They shared some cultural characteristics with the Chumash, but they spoke a completely different language. The Gabrielino language is related to the language spoken by the Cahuilla Indians near Palm Springs and to the Hopi language spoken in parts of Arizona and to certain Indian languages spoken in Mexico. The language family to which Gabrielino belongs is called "Uto-Aztecan."

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:09AM PST (-0800 GMT)
I have never heard of the Chocolate Lady story. Please tell me about it. What do the initials MTA stand for.

Marcy Montgomery, Ed Dir, Camp Internet: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:11AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Students - can any of you identify the shell used in the artifacts pictured above ?

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:11AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Mohammed's question: "What kind of God did the Chumash have?" The Chumash name for 'God' was Shup. Shup also means 'Mother Earth' in their language. They had shrines consisting of poles decorated with feathered banners that were erected on hills near their towns and villages that were dedicated to Shup. Chumash Indians would go to these shrines to pray.

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:17AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Ms. Johnson's question: "Last year you spoke about burial and weddings are there any other cultural activties that the Chumash did that we do?" Just like us, Chumash Indians had to make a living, build houses, and prepare their food. Before the coming of the missions, Chumash children learned from their parents how to hunt, fish, and gather wild foods. Girls learned how to cook and weave baskets. Chumash Indians played games with dice (walnut shells filled with tar and bits of shell) and guessing games. Once the missions were established, Chumash Indians adopted agriculture and began growing crops, whereas before they had gathered wild plant foods, acorns, and seeds.

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:17AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is an answer to Ms. Johnson's question: "Last year you spoke about burial and weddings are there any other cultural activties that the Chumash did that we do?" Just like us, Chumash Indians had to make a living, build houses, and prepare their food. Before the coming of the missions, Chumash children learned from their parents how to hunt, fish, and gather wild foods. Girls learned how to cook and weave baskets. Chumash Indians played games with dice (walnut shells filled with tar and bits of shell) and guessing games. Once the missions were established, Chumash Indians adopted agriculture and began growing crops, whereas before they had gathered wild plant foods, acorns, and seeds.

Ms. Johnson@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, CA: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:19AM PST (-0800 GMT)
The Choc. Lady story is about a young girl was desserted alone on one of the Channel Islands. When she was discovered by explorers she had survived many years alone. The only thing she would eat or drink when it was introduced to her was chocolate! She ate too much and became know as the Choc. Lady. It was not good for her yet she would not give it up. This was told to us by the Docine at the MTA and a piece of iron artwork was created in memory of her. It was very cool

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:20AM PST (-0800 GMT)
The American History Explorers Team asked "What ceremonies and dances do the Chumash do today? Or festivals ? Or canoe races? That carry on the old ways?" Chumash Indians today participate in Pow-Wows that are held all over southern California that include Indians from other tribes. Some of the dances that are currently performed are the Swordfish Dance, the Crane Dance, and the Bear Dance. Several years ago a group of Chumash and other Indians built a plank canoe (tomol) and rowed it across the Channel to Santa Cruz Island. There are not enough plank canoes that are currently built to have canoe races.

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:22AM PST (-0800 GMT)
That is an interesting story about the Chocolate Lady. It seems to be another fictional story that is based on the story of the "Lone Woman" of San Nicolas Island, who died in 1853 after living 18 years alone on the island.

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:28AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Here is my answer to the question about how we know where to look for artifacts on the islands: The places where the island Indians lived for many centuries are called "middens" (shell mounds), because many pieces of broken shells are found there. The island Indians gathered mussels, abalones, and clams to eat. Over time, the discarded shells built up into mounds. Archaeologists know that when they see evidence of broken shells on the islands that there once was a village located there. All of the island village sites are protected today. It is against the law to dig or collect artifacts at these sites, unless a person is a trained archaeologist and has obtained necessary permits from the government.

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:29AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Thank you to all the students and teachers who participated in today's chat. I enjoyed talking to you.

Marcy Montgomery, Ed Dir, Camp Internet: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:32AM PST (-0800 GMT)
A big thank you to Dr. Johnson - now that we have students in different time zones, the archive of this Q&A will be of extra lasting value so all Campers can learn from our honored Trail Guide. Wonderful for all of us to learn about your new discoveries - -thank you!

Dr. Johnson: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:33AM PST (-0800 GMT)
Kiwanan. This is the Chumash expression for "Good bye."

Ms. Johnson@Grant Elem. Santa Monica, Ca: . . . . Thu, Oct 23, 11:34AM PST (-0800 GMT)
MTA stands for Metro Transit Authority

Questions about Camp Internet--click here