The idea of decorating a tree as part of seasonal celebrations is an old
one that comes from many lands and cultures. A decorated tree is now an
inseparable part of the festive season but evergreens have always been important
at the time of the winter solstice. Plants that remained green in the winter
reminded primitive peoples that spring was bound to return and that once
again the land would be lush and abundant.
Desired Learning Outcome:
1.) To make children aware that the custom of decorating a tree during seasonal
celebrations is a link with the historic past and furthers traditions from
2.) To create an awareness that the dark of winter encourages us all to
think about our emotional and spiritual ties with our communities and our
- Evergreens have been associated with seasonal celebrations since ancient
- Seasonal celebrations occur at the time of winter solstice.
- Evergreens have been used as symbols by various nationalities and/or religious
groups, including: Egyptians, Romans, Druids, Vikings, Anglo-Saxons, Spaniards
- Yule log traditions contributed to superstitions, as well as the traditions
of gift giving and decorating the log or tree.
1.) Have the children read Lesson one, part one, The History of Christmas
Trees, included in this kit.
2.) Introduce the session by pointing out to the children that the seasonal
celebration occurs at the gloomiest time of the year: the days are short,
cold and damp and darkness falls not long after school gets out. The festivities
take our minds off the weather however, by making us think about warm kitchens,
gift giving, decorating our surroundings and decorating evergreen trees.
Similarly, ancient celebrations such as the Saturnalia in Rome and the feasts
that were held in the Nordic countries to honour Balder, the god of the
sun, served the same purpose.
3.) Remind the children that although Christmas is intimately associated
with the Christian belief in resurrection, the ancient peoples also celebrated
the solstice as a time of renewal and rebirth and as a promise, always fulfilled,
that soon the land again would be green and lush.
1.) Explain what is different about the days and nights at the time of winter
2.) Tell me what you think about during the winter solstice, which falls
just before the seasonal celebration.
3.) Describe why the winter solstice is a good time of year to think about
being together with your family and friends.
4.) Explain how ancient peoples observed the solstice.
5.) Describe the customs we have inherited from ancient tribes and civilizations.
Lesson One: The History of Christmas
Trees, Part One
Long before the advent of Christianity, plants and trees that remained green
all year had a special meaning for people in the winter. Just as people
today decorate their homes during the festive season with pine, spruce and
fir trees, ancient peoples hung evergreen boughs over their doors and windows.
In many countries people believed that evergreens would keep away witches,
ghosts, evil spirits and illness.
In the Northern hemisphere, the shortest day and longest night of the year
falls on December 21 or December 22 and is called the winter solstice. Many
ancient peoples believed that the sun was a god and that winter came every
year because the sun god had become sick and weak. They celebrated the solstice
because it meant that at last the sun god would begin to get well. Evergreen
boughs reminded them of all the green plants that would grow again when
the sun god was strong and summer would return.
The ancient Egyptians worshipped a god called Ra, who had the head of a
hawk and who wore the sun as a blazing disc in his crown. At the solstice,
when Ra began to recover from the illness, the Egyptians filled their homes
with green palm rushes which symbolized for them the triumph of life over
Across the Mediterranean Sea, the early Romans marked the solstice with
a feast called the Saturnalia in honour of Saturn, the god of agriculture.
The Romans knew that the solstice meant that soon farms and orchards would
be green and fruitful. To mark the occasion, they decorated their homes
and temples with evergreen boughs. The Saturnalia was a special time of
peace and equality when wars could not be declared, when slaves and masters
could eat at the same table, and when gifts were exchanged as a symbol of
affection and brotherhood.
In Northern Europe the mysterious Druids, the priests of the ancient Celts,
also decorated their temples with evergreen boughs as a symbol of everlasting
life. The fierce Vikings in Scandanavia thought that evergreens were the
special plant of the sun god, Balder. Many historians believe that our word
for Yule came from the Norse word, 'rol', the Gothic word 'hiul' or the
Saxon work 'hweol' all of which mean wheel and refer to the cycles of the
When families bring home their Christmas tree from a sales lot or a choose-and-cut
tree farm, they are following a tradition that is more than a thousand years
old. "Bringing in the Yule log" was a ritual that began in Great Britain
and that spread throughout Europe, eventually reaching North America. On
Christmas Eve, the large central trunk of a great tree was dragged from
the forest. Everyone in the family, both adults and children, helped with
the job by pulling on the ropes. When the log was finally brought into the
house, it was thrown on the family fireplace where it burned for the 12
days of Christmas.
Many superstitions surrounded the log: it had to be ignited the first time
a flame was put to it or bad luck would surely follow; it had to be lit
with a stick saved from the fire from the year before or the house would
burn down; and unless charcoal from the great fire was kept under the family
beds for the following year, the house might be struck by lightning.
As the Yule log spread through Europe it acquired many customs and many
names. In Ireland, it was called "bloc na Nodleg", or Christmas block. In
Spain, children followed the log as it was dragged through the village,
beating it with sticks to drive out the evil spirits; they were rewarded
with gifts of nuts and chocolates by people who lived along the way. In
the Balkan areas of Europe, women decorated the log with red silk, gold
wire, needles and flowers before it was thrown into the fire.
Hardly anyone burns a Yule log anymore, but some memories of it remain.
In French homes, instead of Christmas cake, children enjoy a rich chocolate
roll covered with a dark brown frosting that looks just like bark. Sometimes
the "buche de Noel", or Christmas log, is decorated with frosted berries
and holly needles, or with marzipan mushrooms, as a reminder of the great
logs that were once dragged from the forest.