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American Literature - Native American Lore
How the Hopi Indians Reached Their World
When the world was new, the ancient people and the ancient creatures did not live
on the top of the earth.
They lived under it.
All was darkness, all was blackness, above the earth as well as below it.
There were four worlds:
this one on top of the earth, and below it three cave worlds,
one below the other.
None of the cave worlds was large enough for all the people and the creatures.
They increased so fast in the lowest cave world that they crowded it.
They were poor and did not know where to turn in the blackness.
When they moved, they jostled one another.
The cave was filled with the filth of the people who lived in it.
No one could turn to spit without spitting on another.
No one could cast slime from his nose without its falling on someone else.
The people filled the place with their complaints and with their expressions of
Some people said, "It is not good for us to live in this way."
"How can it be made better?" one man asked.
"Let it be tried and seen!" answered another.
Two Brothers, one older and one younger, spoke to the priest- chiefs of the
people in the cave world, "Yes, let it be tried and seen.
Then it shall be well. By our wills it shall be well."
The Two Brothers pierced the roofs of the caves and descended to the lowest world,
where people lived.
The Two Brothers sowed one plant after another, hoping that one of them would
grow up to the opening through which they themselves had descended and yet would
have the strength to bear the weight of men and creatures.
These, the Two Brothers hoped, might climb up the plant into the second cave
world. One of these plants was a cane.
At last, after many trials, the cane became so tall that it grew through the
opening in the roof, and it was so strong that men could climb to its top.
It was jointed so that it was like a ladder, easily ascended. Ever since then,
the cane has grown in joints as we see it today along the Colorado River.
Up this cane many people and beings climbed to the second cave world. When a
part of them had climbed out, they feared that that cave also would be too small.
It was so dark that they could not see how large it was. So they shook the ladder
and caused those who were coming up it to fall back.
Then they pulled the ladder out. It is said that those who were left came out of
the lowest cave later. They are our brothers west of us.
After a long time the second cave became filled with men and beings, as the
first had been. Complaining and wrangling were heard as in the beginning.
Again the cane was placed under the roof vent, and once more men and beings
entered the upper cave world.
Again, those who were slow to climb out were shaken back or left behind.
Though larger, the third cave was as dark as the first and second.
The Two Brothers found fire. Torches were set ablaze, and by their light men
built their huts and kivas, or travelled from place to place.
While people and the beings lived in this third cave world, times of evil came to
Women became so crazed that they neglected all things for the dance.
They even forgot their babies. Wives became mixed with wives, so that husbands
did not know their own from others.
At that time there was no day, only night, black night.
Throughout this night, women danced in the kivas (men's "clubhouses"), ceasing
only to sleep. So the fathers had to be the mothers of the little ones.
When these little ones cried from hunger, the fathers carried them to the kivas,
where the women were dancing. Hearing their cries, the mothers came and nursed
them, and then went back to their dancing. Again the fathers took care of the
These troubles caused people to long for the light and to seek again an escape
from darkness. They climbed to the fourth world, which was this world. But it
too was in darkness, for the earth was closed in by the sky, just as the cave
worlds had been closed in by their roofs.
Men went from their lodges and worked
by the light of torches and fires. They found the tracks of only one being,
the single ruler of the unpeopled world, the tracks of Corpse Demon or Death.
The people tried to follow these tracks, which led eastward. But the world was
damp and dark, and people did not know what to do in the darkness.
The waters seemed to surround them, and the tracks seemed to lead out into the
With the people were five beings that had come forth with them from the cave
worlds: Spider, Vulture, Swallow, Coyote, and Locust. The people and these beings
consulted together, trying to think of some way of making light.
Many, many attempts were made, but without success. Spider was asked to try
first. She spun a mantle of pure white cotton.
It gave some light but not enough. Spider therefore became our grandmother.
Then the people obtained and prepared a very white deerskin that had not been
pierced in any spot. From this they made a shield case, which they painted with
turquoise paint. It shed forth such brilliant light that it lighted the
whole world. It made the light from the cotton mantle look faded.
So the people sent the shield-light to the east, where it became the moon.
Down in the cave world Coyote had stolen a jar that was very heavy,
so very heavy that he grew weary of carrying it.
He decided to leave it behind, but he was curious to see what it contained.
Now that light had taken the place of darkness, he opened the jar.
From it many shining fragments and sparks flew out and upward, singeing his
face as they passed him. That is why the coyote has a black face to this day.
The shining fragments and sparks flew up to the sky and became stars.
By these lights the people found that the world was indeed very small and
surrounded by waters, which made it damp. The people appealed to Vulture for help. He spread his wings and fanned the waters, which flowed away to the east and to the west until mountains began to appear.
Across the mountains the Two Brothers cut channels.
Water rushed through the channels, and wore their courses deeper and deeper.
Thus the great canyons and valleys of the world were formed.
The waters have kept on flowing and flowing for ages.
The world has grown drier, and continues to grow drier and drier.
Now that there was light, the people easily followed the tracks of Death
eastward over the new land that was appearing. Hence Death is our greatest
father and master. We followed his tracks when we left the cave worlds,
and he was the only being that awaited us on the great world of waters where
this world is now.
Although all the water had flowed away, the people found the earth soft and damp.
That is why we can see today the tracks of men and of many strange creatures
between the place toward the west and the place where we came from the cave
Since the days of the first people, the earth has been changed to stone,
and all the tracks have been preserved as they were when they were first made.
When people had followed in the tracks of Corpse Demon but a short distance,
they overtook him. Among them were two little girls. One was the beautiful
daughter of a great priest. The other was the child of somebody-or-other
She was not beautiful, and she was jealous of the little beauty. With the aid
of Corpse Demon the jealous girl caused the death of the other child.
This was the first death.
When people saw that the girl slept and could not be awakened, that she grew
cold and that her heart had stopped beating, her father, the great priest,
"Who has caused my daughter to die?" he cried loudly.
But the people only looked at each other.
"I will make a ball of sacred meal," said the priest. "I will throw it into
the air, and when it falls it will strike someone on the head.
The one it will strike I shall know as the one whose magic and evil art have
brought my tragedy upon me."
The priest made a ball of sacred flour and pollen and threw it into the air.
When it fell, it struck the head of the jealous little girl,
the daughter of somebody-or-other. Then the priest exclaimed,
"So you have caused this thing! You have caused the death of my daughter."
He called a council of the people, and they tried the girl. They would have
killed her if she had not cried for mercy and a little time.
Then she begged the priest and his people to return to the hole they had all
come out of and look down it.
"If you still wish to destroy me, after you have looked into the hole," she said, "I will die willingly."
So the people were persuaded to return to the hole leading from the cave world.
When they looked down, they saw plains of beautiful flowers in a land of
everlasting summer and fruitfulness. And they saw the beautiful little girl,
the priest's daughter, wandering among the flowers.
She was so happy that she paid no attention to the people.
She seemed to have no desire to return to this world.
"Look!" said the girl who had caused her death. "Thus it shall be with all
the children of men."
"When we die," the people said to each other, "we will return to the world we
have come from. There we shall be happy. Why should we fear to die?
Why should we resent death?"
So they did not kill the little girl. Her children became the powerful wizards
and witches of the world, who increased in numbers as people increased.
Her children still live and still have wonderful and dreadful powers.
Then the people journeyed still farther eastward. As they went,
they discovered Locust in their midst.
"Where did you come from?" they asked.
"I came out with you and the other beings," he replied.
"Why did you come with us on our journey?" they asked.
"So that I might be useful," replied Locust.
But the people, thinking that he could not be useful, said to him,
"You must return to the place you came from."
But Locust would not obey them. Then the people became so angry at him
that they ran arrows through him, even through his heart.
All the blood oozed out of his body and he died. After a long time he came
to life again and ran about, looking as he had looked before,
except that he was black.
The people said to one another, "Locust lives again, although we have
pierced him through and through. Now he shall indeed be useful and shall
journey with us. Who besides Locust has this wonderful power of renewing
his life? He must possess the medicine for the renewal of the lives of others.
He shall become the medicine of mortal wounds and of war."
So today the locust is at first white, as was the first locust that came
forth with the ancients. Like him, the locust dies, and after he has been
dead a long time, he comes to life again-- black. He is our father, too.
Having his medicine, we are the greatest of men.
The locust medicine still heals mortal wounds.
After the ancient people had journeyed a long distance, they became very hungry.
In their hurry to get away from the lower cave world, they had forgotten to bring
After they had done much lamenting, the Spirit of Dew sent the Swallow back to
bring the seed of corn and of other foods. When Swallow returned,
the Spirit of Dew planted the seed in the ground and chanted prayers to it.
Through the power of these prayers, the corn grew and ripened in a single day.
So for a long time, as the people continued their journey, they carried only
enough seed for a day's planting. They depended upon the Spirit of Dew to raise
for them in a single day an abundance of corn and other foods.
To the Corn Clan, he gave this seed, and for a long time they were able to
raise enough corn for their needs in a very short time.
But the powers of the witches and wizards made the time for raising foods
grow longer and longer. Now, sometimes, our corn does not have time to grow
old and ripen in the ear, and our other foods do not ripen.
If it had not been
for the children of the little girl whom the ancient people let live, even
now we would not need to watch our cornfields whole summers through, and
we would not have to carry heavy packs of food on our journeys.
As the ancient people travelled on, the children of the little girl tried their
powers and caused other troubles. These mischief-makers stirred up people who
had come out of the cave worlds before our ancients had come.
They made war
upon our ancients. The wars made it necessary for the people to build houses
whenever they stopped travelling. They built their houses on high mountains
reached by only one trail, or in caves with but one path leading to them,
or in the sides of deep canyons. Only in such places could they sleep in peace.
Only a small number of people were able to climb up from their secret hiding
places and emerge into the Fourth World. Legends reveal the Grand Canyon is
where these people emerged. From there they began their search for the homes
the Two Brothers intended for them.
These few were the Hopi Indians that now live on the Three Mesas of northeastern