prtc.gif

Reference Manual

Developed by the Ventura County ARES AREA 6 Training Group

This file is Approx 182K


Acknowledgements
MSDOS version 6.22 Copyright © 1994 Microsoft Corporation

Microsoft Home Page

PKUNZIP is a SHAREWARE Program which can be used to UNZIP the paKet Program

PKWARE Home Page PKWARE EMail Address

The PACKETUT bulletins

We would like to express our appreciation to Larry Kenny (WB9LOZ) who provided much of the documentation for the Packet Theory section in his series of "PACKETUT" bulletins. These bulletins are available on the ARRL "landline" BBS at:

(203) 666-0578

Larry can be reached at:

Larry's EMail Address Larry Kenney, WB9LOZ @ W6PW.#NCA.CA.USA.NOAM

Larry's Complete Packet Radio Tutorial

The paKet Program version 6.2 Copyright © 1999 Tony Lonsdale (VK2DHU)

The best Packet Radio Software in the World!
paKet is a communications program developed by Tony Lonsdale (VK2DHU) especially for use with Packet Radio, although it can be used for other modes with the appropriate equipment. It is designed to run on any IBM compatible computer system and to communicate through a standard TAPR-compatible Terminal Node Controller (TNC).

paKet is offered to the world as a SHAREWARE product for $25 (Austrailan) per copy, or equivalent in our currency. If you would like a diskette copy mailed to you, an additional $5 covers the cost of a diskette, postage, and packaging.

How to contact Tony Lonsdale via the Internet:

Tony Lonsdale's Home Page (10/99) Tony's EMail Address (10/99)

The paKet Program can also be purchased in the USA from the Tucson Amateur Radio Packet Corporation (TAPR) at the following address:

TAPR P.O. Box 51114 Denton, TX 76206

TAPR Home Page

MSYS The WA8BXN MSYS Packet Bulletin Board System

MSYS is written by Mike Pechura, WA8BXN, and is © Copyright 1994 by HUB COMPUTERS, INC. It is distributed FREE for amateur use and can be obtained by various means including the Cleveland Hamnet BBS in Cleveland, Ohio (216-942-7516 - 9600/2400/1200 baud - RBBS)

Cleveland Hamnet Archives via internet

The Kantronics KPC-3 Terminal Node Controller (TNC)

© Copyright 1996, Kantronics Co. Inc., All Rights Reserved.

The KPC-3 is a hardware and software design incorporating the AX.25 Level 2 Version 2 Packet protocol as adopted by the American Radio Relay League (ARRL).

Kantronics 1202 E. 23rd St Lawrence, Kansas 66046-5099 913-842-7745 Fax 913-842-2031 Technical Service 913-842-4476, hours: 9-12, 2-5

Kantronics Home Page

Oxnard Computer Center 12 Station LAN! -- Training Paradise

Mega TNX to Oxnard Computer Center for their support!

Oxnard Computer Center 2360 Oxnard Blvd. Oxnard, CA

Tel#: (805)983-0855

Owner: Paul A FRIEND of ARES


About SHAREWARE

The paKet program and PKUNZIP are SHAREWARE programs. What is a SHAREWARE program?

SHAREWARE (also known as user supported software and other names) is a concept not understood by everyone. The authors of SHAREWARE retain all rights to the software under the copyright laws while still allowing free distribution. This gives the user the chance to freely obtain and try out software to see if it fits his/her needs. SHAREWARE should not be confused with Public Domain software even though they are often obtained from the same sources.

If you continue to use SHAREWARE after trying it out, you are expected to register your use with the author and pay a registration fee. What you get in return depends on the author, but may include a printed manual, free updates, telephone support, etc. Only by paying for the SHAREWARE you use do you enable the SHAREWARE author to continue to support his software and create new programs.

Considering that the SHAREWARE registration fees are almost always far less than the purchase price of comparable commercial software it's obvious that SHAREWARE is a good deal for everyone.


Table of Contents
  • Acknowledgements

  • About SHAREWARE

  • Your Instructors

  • SECTION I -- Packet Radio Theory

  • SECTION II -- MSDOS

  • SECTION III -- The paKet Program

  • SECTION IV -- The Full-Featured Packet Bulletin Board System (PBBS)


    Your Instructors:

    K6NEJoe Krigbaum
    KD6QOHRussell "Rusty" Reid
    N6AHIRich Anderson (SK 2005)
    N6ZUFDon Miller

    SECTION I -- Packet Radio Theory

    Your instructor for this first section will be Joe Krigbaum
    (K6NE).  Joe is the ARES Emergency Coordinator for AREA 6 -- the
    City of Ventura.
    
    Joe's qualifications for teaching this section are based on his
    extensive professional background in computers and the AX.25
    Amateur Packet Radio Link-Layer Protocol.  Joe can be reached at:
    
    	Joe Krigbaum (K6NE)                 
    
    Joe's EMail Address k6ne@n6ahi.#sca.ca.usa.noam

    SECTION II -- MSDOS

    Your instructor for this second section will be Don Miller
    (N6ZUF).  Don is a "transplant" from SLO County ARES/RACES and
    Santa Barbara County ARES. Don's qualifications for teaching this
    section are based on his past experience as a packet liaison and
    his background as a safety trainer in the private sector.  Don can
    be reached via:
    
    	Joe Krigbaum (K6NE)
    
    Joe Krigbaum's e-mail address K6NE@n6ahi.#sca.ca.usa.noam

    SECTION III -- The paKet Program

    Your Instructor for this third section will be Russell ("Rusty")
    Reid (KD6QOH). Rusty holds a General Class Amateur Radio license. 
    He is an Assistant ARES Emergency Coordinator for AREA 6 -- the
    City of Ventura.  Rusty's other qualifications for teaching this
    section are based on his experience as the 1994 President of the
    Pointsettia Amateur Radio Club (PARC), an experienced packet
    trainer and his own natural leadership skills.  Rusty can be
    reached at:
    
    	Russell "Rusty" Reid (KD6QOH)         (805) 650-6888
    	kd6qoh@n6ahi.#sca.ca.usa.noam
    
    

    SECTION IV -- The Full-Featured Packet Bulletin Board System (PBBS)

    Your Instructor for this fourth section will be Rich Anderson
    (N6AHI), a member of our local AREA 6 ARES/RACES team.  Rich has
    been a ham for over 27 years, having received his first license
    in 1971.  He also holds a General Radio Telephone Operator's
    license.  He has had approximately 17 years of commercial RF 
    experience.
    
    At the present time he is the owner/trustee of the N6AHI 2-meter
    voice repeater on 147.975 MHz in Ventura, CA.
    
    Rich also owns and operates the ALFBBS-1 on 145.710 MHz.  The
    ALFBBS-1 (N6AHI-3) is an MSYS-type full-featured Packet Bulletin
    Board System (PBBS). Rich can be reached at:
    
    	Rich Anderson (N6AHI)                 (805) 642-7426
    	n6ahi@n6ahi.#sca.ca.usa.noam
    



    SECTION I -- Packet Radio Theory

    Packet Radio Theory Training Section Goals:

    This Course is designed to teach Packet Radio techniques to interested
    Amateurs in AREA 6 of Ventura County ARES as a means of improving their
    Emergency Communications skills.
    
    WARNING!!  Please be advised that learning this material will not
    only increase your value as a packet-trained volunteer of our
    ARES team, but there is a strong possibility that you will
    actually enjoy it!
    
    The goal of this Packet Theory section will be to provide you with
    background about Packet Radio in general terms: 
    
    	1)      What is Packet Radio?
    	2)      The history of Packet Radio
    	3)      What Equipment is Required?
    
    This section will also discuss the AX.25 Amateur Packet Radio
    Link-Layer Protocol, TNC Commands and the concept of hierarchical
    addressing.  At the end of this section there will be a question
    and answer period.
    
    Although this Training Guide is designed to provide you with a
    complete and comprehensive account of every topic which will be
    covered,  we encouraged you to take notes to supplement and
    personalize our training.
    
    We would like to express our appreciation to Larry Kenny (WB9LOZ)
    who provided much of the documentation for the Packet Theory
    section in his series of "PACKETUT" bulletins.  These bulletins
    are available on the ARRL "landline" BBS at:
    
    	(203) 666-0578
    
    Larry can be reached at:
    
    	Larry Kenney, WB9LOZ @ W6PW.#NCA.CA.USA.NOAM 
    

    What is Packet Radio?

    Packet Radio is a product of the computer age, and as a result,
    Packet Radio has computer-age features that provide a very
    efficient means of communication.
    
    Packet Radio provides error-free communications.
    
       With Packet Radio, no time is wasted trying to decipher         
       communications that contain "hits" or "misses" caused by        
       electrical interference or changes in propagation.  The         
       receiving station receives information  exactly as it is sent   
       by the transmitting station.  When a Packet Radio transmits     
       "Send a surgeon," that station can be sure that the receiving   
       station will not send him a fish.
    
    Packet Radio uses the spectrum efficiently.
    
       One radio frequency may be used for multiple communications at  
       the same time.  Station A can be in contact with station B on   
       frequency C, while station D is in contact with station E, also 
       on frequency C.
    
    Packet Radio uses other stations efficiently.
    
       Any Packet Radio station can command other Packet Radio         
       stations to create a network for the transfer of information.   
       If station A cannot communicate with station C, it can command  
       an intermediate station to act as a conduit to station C.
    
    Packet Radio uses time efficiently.
    
       Packet Radio bulletin-board systems shift time by permitting    
       Packet Radio operators to store messages for retrieval by other 
       Amateurs at a later time.  If station A has information for     
       station B, but station B is not on the air at the time, station 
       A can address a message to station B and store it on a          
       bulletin-board system for retrieval by station B at its         
       convenience.
    
    Packet Radio provides the capability to document your
    communications.
    
       You have the capability to document everything you say on       
       Packet Radio on paper through your printer or in a file on your 
       computers disk.
    
    Packet Radio can transcend the limitations of local propagation.
    
       You can communicate with other Packet Radio stations across the 
       globe without buying the expensive antennas and/or HF equipment 
       which is typically associated with voice communications.
    
       For example, you can use a handheld transceiver at 5 watts and  
       a J-Pole antenna to send a message to an Amateur Radio operator 
       in New Zealand using Packet Radio (assuming network "backbone"  
       connectivity is available).
    


    The History of Amateur Packet Radio

    RealAudio History of Packet Radio and TAPR by Lyle Johnson (WA7GXD)

    Store-and-Forward packet-switching techniques date back to a 1964
    study by the RAND Corporation.  The term packet was coined in
    1965 by D.W. Dadies of the British National Physical Laboratory.
    
    In 1970, the University of Hawaii put its ALOHA packet-radio based
    radio system on the air to provide communications between its
    central computer and the university computer that was dispersed
    throughout the Hawaiian Islands.  ALOHANET operated in the UHF
    radio spectrum (at 407.350 and 413.475 Mhz), and may be considered
    the forerunner of amateur Packet Radio.
    
    In the late 70s, Canada's Dr. John deMercado (Director General of
    Telecommunications Regulations) working  with the Canadian
    Department of Communications (DOC) encouraged Canadian hams to
    experiment with  Packet Radio.  In May of 1978, the first actual
    amateur packets were transmitted and received without error at a 
    meeting of the Montreal Amateur Radio Club.
    
    The first Terminal Node Controller (TNC) was developed by Canadian
    Doug Lockhard, VE7APU.
    
    The first US packet radio demonstration was conducted at the 1980
    ARRL National Convention in Seattle, Washington.  The first made-
    in-the-USA amateur packet radio digipeater was installed on
    December 10, 1980  by Hank Magnuski, KA6M, in San Francisco, CA. 
    As a result of Hank's operations, a group of interested  amateurs
    joined him in the founding of the Pacific Packet Radio Society
    (PPRS).  On the east coast, the Amateur Radio Research and
    Development Corporation (AMRAD) was the hotbed of activity.
    
    Late in 1981, the Tucson Amateur Radio Packet Corporation(TAPR)
    was founded by Den Connors, KD2S.  TAPR developed the TNC-1 and
    TNC-2 which are de facto standard TNCs.
    

    What Equipment is Required?

    A ham can get involved very easily with relatively small out-of-
    pocket expenses.  All you need is a 2-meter transceiver, a
    computer or terminal and a TNC.  You probably already have the two
    meter rig and a computer of some kind, so all you need to buy is
    the TNC, which costs just over $100.  The TNC is the Terminal Node 
    Controller, the little black box that's wired between the computer
    and the radio.  It acts very much like a modem  when connecting a
    computer to the phone lines.  It converts the data from the
    computer into AFSK tones for transmission and changes the tones
    received by the radio into data for the computer.  It's a simple
    matter of wiring up a plug and a couple jacks to become fully
    operational.
    
    Packet is communications between people either direct or indirect. 
    You can work keyboard to keyboard or use electronic mailboxes or
    bulletin board systems to leave messages.  Due to the error
    checking by the TNC, all of it is error free, too.
    
    As the data is received it's continuously checked for errors, and
    it isn't accepted unless it's correct. You don't miss the
    information if it has errors, however, because the information is
    resent again.  We will go into how this is accomplished in a later
    part of this series.
    
    The data that is to be transmitted is collected in the TNC and
    sent as bursts, or packets, of information; hence the name.  Each
    packet has the callsign or address of who it's going to, who it's
    coming from and the route between the two stations included,
    along with the data and error checking.  Since up to 256
    characters can be included in  each packet, more than three lines
    of text can be sent in a matter of a couple seconds.  There is
    plenty of time between packets for several stations to be using
    the same frequency at the same time.
    

    The AX.25 Amateur Packet Radio Link-Layer Protocol

    AX.25 (Amateur X.25) is the communications protocol used for
    packet radio.  A protocol is a standard for how two computer
    systems are to communicate with each other, somewhat analogous to
    using business format when writing a business letter.  AX.25 was
    developed in the 1970's and based of the wired network protocol
    X.25.  Because of the difference in the transport medium (radios
    vs wires) and because of different addressing schemes, X.25 was
    modified to suit amateur radio's needs.  AX.25 includes a
    digipeater field to allow other stations to automatically repeat
    packets to extend the range of transmitters.  One advantage of
    AX.25 is that every packet sent contains the sender's and 
    recipient's amateur radio callsign, thus providing station
    identification with every transmission.
    

    Unnumbered and Supervisory Frames

    FlagAddressControl FCSFlag
    8 Bits112 - 560 Bits8 Bits16 Bits8 Bits
    01111110Callsigns & SSIDs of Destination, Source and Optionally, DigipeatersFrame TypeCalculated Value01111110

    Unnumbered Frames

     
    There are six types of unnumbered frames:
    
       SABM   Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode --Initiates a connection  
    	  between two packet-radio stations.
    
       DISC   Disconnect -- Terminates a connection between two        
    	  Packet-Radio stations.
    
       UA     Unnumbered Acknowledge --Receives and accepts the SABM   
    	  and DISC frames described above.
    
       DM     Disconnected Mode -- If the packet station is busy and   
    	  unable to accept a connection at the moment, it rejects  
    	  the SABM frame by transmitting the DM frame.
    
       FRMR   Frame Reject -- Indicates that the source station is     
    	  unable to process a frame and that the error is such     
    	  that resending the frame will not correct the problem.   
    	  This frame is  rarely used.
    
       UI     Unnumbered Information -- Allows data to be sent from a  
    	  source station without a connection to the destination   
    	  station.
    

    Supervisory Frames

    Supervisory frames are used to control the communications link:
    
       RNR    Receive Not Ready --Indicates that the destination       
    	  station is not able to accept any more Information       
    	  frames because of a temporary "busy" condition.
    
       RR     Receive Ready -- Indicates that the destination station  
    	  is able to accept more Information frames.
    
       REJ    Reject -- Used by the destination station to request a   
    	  retransmission when an out-of-sequence frame is received.
    

    Information Frames

    Flag AddressControlPIDInformation FCSFlag
    8 Bits112 -560 Bits8 Bits8 BitsN X 8 Bits16 Bits8 Bits
    01111110Callsigns & SSIDs of Destination, Source and Optionally, DigipeatersFrame TypeLayer 3 Prot. TypeUser Data Calculated Value01111110


    TNC Commands

    Now we will take a look at some of the TNC commands available to
    you.  We will be discussing the commands used in the TAPR TNC-2
    and TNC-2 clones.  You might find that some of the commands are
    not available in your particular TNC or that they're used in a
    slightly different manner than the ones explained here. 
    
    Please refer to your owner's operating manual for specific details
    on how to use these commands in your TNC.
    

    8BITCONV   ON|OFF   OFF   Pass or strip high bit in CONVerse mode.
    Parameters:
       ON  - High order bit is not stripped in Converse Mode.
       OFF - High order bit is stripped in Converse Mode.
    
    This enables transmission of 8 bit data while in Converse mode. If
    8BITCONV is OFF, the high order bit (bit 7) of the characters to
    the TNC, is removed before the characters are transmitted in a
    packet. ASCII characters only require 7 bits (0-6) and the final
    bit is sometimes used as a parity bit.  Setting bit 7 in text
    characters transmitted sometimes causes problems at the receiving
    end.  Bit 7 is always removed in Command Mode.
    
    If you want to transmit 8 bit data, but don't want all the
    features of transparent mode, you should set 8BITCONV ON and AWLEN 8.
    

    AWLEN n   7|8   7   Number of data bits per word.
    Parameters:
       'n' - 7 or 8 specifies the number of data bits per word.
    
    This value defines the word length used by the serial I/O port.
    
    AWLEN 8 and PARITY 0 is the required setting for paKet.
    
    To send and receive, retaining all 8 data bits, you should use
    Transparent mode (which uses all 8 data bits) or set AWLEN 8. This
    is for the transmission of executable or special binary files.
    Alternatively, you can use CONVERSE mode and set AWLEN 8 and
    8BITCONV ON and handle the CONVERSE mode special characters with
    the PASS prefix.
    

    AX25L2V2   ON|OFF   ON   Select level 1 or 2 of AX25
    protocol.
    Parameters:
       ON -  Select level 2 version 2.0 of AX25 protocol.
       OFF - Select level 2 version 1.0 of AX25 protocol.
    
    Version 1.0 was only implemented to allow correct digipeating from
    early TNC-1's of version 2.0 AX25 packets.
    You would normally set AX25L2V2 ON, which is the default setting.
    

    AXDELAY   0-180   0   Extra keyup delay (n*0.1 sec).
    Parameters:
       n = 0 to 180, the voice repeater keyup delay in 100ms increments.
    
    This value specifies the time a TNC is to wait, in addition to the
    normal TXDELAY, after keying the transmitter before data is sent.
    Use of voice repeaters for Packet transmissions is neither
    desirable nor necessary when suitable Digipeaters are available.
    
    This command acts in conjunction with AXHANG.
    
    The TNC has this command implemented with 10ms increments. 

    AXHANG   0-20   0   Voice Rptr hang time (n*0.1 sec).
    Parameters:
        n - 0 to 20 specifies the voice repeater hang time in 100ms    
        increments.
    
    This allows for more efficient channel usage if the repeater has a
    longer hang or tail than 100ms.
    
    If the packet controller has heard a packet sent within the hang
    period, it will not add the extra delay of AXDELAY to the keyup time.
    
    Use of voice repeaters for Packet transmissions is neither
    desirable nor necessary when suitable Digipeaters are available.
    

    BEACON E/A   0-250   E   0  Send beacon EVERY/AFTER (n*10
    sec).
    Parameters:
       EVERY n - Sends beacon text every "n*10" seconds.
       AFTER n - Sends beacon text once after "n*10" seconds after last packet.
    
       'n'- 0 to 250. If n=0, Beacons are disabled.
    
    BTEXT beacons are sent addressed to "BEACON" via the addresses and
    path specified in "UNPROTO" command. If BTEXT is blank no beacons are sent.
    
    The AFTER command can be used to send messages or announcements
    only when packet stations are on the air and active. 

    BTEXT   text   blank   Text  sent as a beacon (0-120 char).
    Parameters:
       text - Any normal text message of up to 120 characters and      
       spaces.
    
    BTEXT defines the text sent by the BEACON and is addressed to
    UNPROTO.
    
    Multiple line messages can be sent by including the 
    character and <CR> character in the text at the end of
    each line. More than 120 characters causes an error message and
    the command will be ignored.
    
    See also the BEACON command.
    

    CBELL   ON|OFF   OFF   Enable/Disable connect bell.
    Parameters:
       ON  - A bell character will be sent with a connect message.     
       OFF - No bell character is included with connect message.
    
    This is mainly used to attract attention to a connect from another
    station if you are not in the immediate vicinity.  A bell character
    will still be issued even if MFILTER is set to filter out bell characters.
    

    CMSG   ON|OFF   OFF   Enable/Disable connect message.
    Parameters:
       ON  - A text message is sent as first packet after connect is   
       made.
       OFF - The text message is not sent.
    
    The text of the message is contained in CTEXT and is sent after a
    connection is made to you by another station.
    
    This function might be useful if you leave your system running but
    are unavailable to answer the connect request manually.
    
    It is recommended you leave CMSG ON and change the contents of
    CTEXT to reflect the state of your system.  This is easily
    accomplished by specifying an appropriate CTEXT message in both
    the Begin and End Auto commands (via the Configuration Window
    options in the paKet software).
    

    CONMODE   CONV|TR   CONV   Sets mode on connect.
    Parameters:
       CONVERS - Sets automatic entry to converse mode on connect.     
       TRANSPARENT - Sets automatic entry to transparent mode on       
       connect.
    
    The connection may be the result of a radio connection request or
    a keyboard command if NEWMODE is on.
    
    Take care if you are typing when a radio connection request is
    received!
    
    If the controller is already in the connect/convers mode when the
    connection is made it will not change.
    

    CONNECT  Call   none   Connect to a station via optional
    			      rptrs.
    Parameters:
       call1 [Via call2,call3...]
    
    Example:
       C VK7ABC               Attempt a direct connection to VK7ABC    
       C VK7ABC VIA VK7RPT    Attempt a connection to VK7ABC via a     
    			  digipeater (VK7RPT).
       C VK7ABC V VK7RPT,VK3XX-1,VK3ZZZ
    			  Attempt a connection to VK7ABC via 3     
    			  digipeaters.
    
    Type the digipeater fields in the sequence you wish to use to
    route your packets. The brackets are not typed.
    
    An error message is returned and the command is aborted if:    -no
    response after RETRY attempts, or
       - the other TNC is already connected, or
       - the other TNC is attempting a connect, or a disconnect.
    

    CONOK   ON|OFF   ON   Allow connections to your TNC.
    Parameters:
       ON  - Connect requests from other stations will be accepted.    
       OFF -Connect request from other station will be rejected.
    
    The rejected connect request will result in the other station
    having "*** yourcall station busy" message displayed on his
    screen. This is extensively used by BBS's to control automated
    access and forwarding of mail.
    

    CONPERM   ON|OFF   OFF   Select temporary or permanent
    connection.
    Parameters:
       ON  - The current connect on the current stream will not        
       disconnect.
       OFF - Normal operation of connects and disconnects.
    
    This command only takes effect after connect is established. It
    functions on a stream by stream basis when multiple connections
    are allowed.
    
    The connection will be reestablished if RETRY is exceeded. 

    CONSTAMP   ON|OFF   OFF   Date/time stamp connect message.
    Parameters:
       ON  - Connect status messages are time stamped.
       OFF -Connect status messages are not time stamped.
    
    The DAYTIME command is used to set the date and time.
    
    Example:
    
    The DAYTIME format is determined by the DAYUSA command. If
    CONSTAMP is ON and DAYUSA OFF then the connect message might
    appear as follows:
       cmd: C VK2DHU
       cmd: *** CONNECTED to VK2DHU [21/11/89 20:29:31] 

    CONVERS   none   Enter CONV mode from CMD: (Alt is "K")
    This is an immediate command to enter the converse mode from
    Command Mode.
    
    Single key operation of this command is "K".
    
    Link connections are not affected and a return to the Command Mode
    can be made by typing in the Command Mode Entry character (default
    <Ctrl-C>).
    

    CPACTIME   ON|OFF   OFF   CONVERS mode timed packet dispatch.
    Parameters:
       ON  - Packet timeout is used in Converse mode.
       OFF - Packet timeout is not used. In this case the              
       <SENDPAC> character (usually a <CR>) sends the packet.
    
    If CPACTIME is ON, any characters which have been input will be
    packetized and sent after PACTIME has elapsed since the last frame
    was transmitted. This allows automatic periodic sending of packets
    in converse mode, similar to full break-in CW. This allows
    continuous typing by both stations.
    

    CTEXT   text   blank   Connect message text (120 char).
    Parameters:
       text - Any combination of characters and spaces (up to a        
       maximum of 120 characters).
    
    If CMSG is ON, the CTEXT message is sent as soon as another
    station connects to your station.
    
    Multiple line messages may be sent if the pass character
    <Ctrl-V> and <CR> is used at end of each line.
    
    To clear the CTEXT buffer without issuing a RESET command use % or
    & as the first character.
    

    DISCONNECT   none   Teardown connection path.
    Parameters:   
    None
    
    This is an immediate command to initiate a disconnect command to
    the other station with the resultant display of:-
       *** DISCONNECTED when successful.
    
    If a disconnect is issued while a connect is being attempted and
    before the retries have been completed then the message :-
       ***retry count exceeded
       *** DISCONNECTED
    will appear after the TNC ceases to attempt the connect.
    
    Disconnect messages do not appear if in transparent mode.
    
    A new connect from another station is not allowed until the
    disconnect process is completed.
    

    DWAIT   0-250   16   Delay for digipeaters (n*10 msec).
    Parameters:
       n = 0 - 250 specifying default wait time in 10 ms intervals.
    
    TNC will wait the default time after last hearing a data packet on
    the frequency before beginning the keyup sequence. This is used to
    avoid collisions with digipeated packets because these aren't
    retried by the digipeating station, but must be reinserted in the
    system by the originating station.
    
    The ROSE or NETROM networking when fully implemented will go a
    long way to eliminating this problem.
    
    Recommended settings for different types of operation:-            
        Digipeaters          0   (  0 ms)
        Local keyboards     16   (160 ms) - the default                
        BBS, Hosts, etc     32   (320 ms)
        File Transfers      48   (480 ms)
    

    FRACK   1-15   3   Time in secs to wait for ACK.
    Parameters:
       n = 1 to 15 specifying the time the TNC will wait for an ACK    
       before retrying that frame.
    
    If the path includes digipeaters the time is adjusted to allow for
    the extra delays. An extra random time is added to avoid
    collisions.
    

    FULLDUP   ON|OFF   OFF   Select simplex or duplex mode.
    Parameters:
       ON  - Full Duplex mode is enabled
       OFF - Full Duplex mode is disabled
    
    When FULLDUP is OFF the TNC uses the DCD signal from the modem to
    avoid collisions and acknowledges multiple packets with a single
    transmission.
    
    When ON the TNC acknowledges each packet individually.
    
    It should not be used unless a full duplex (split frequency or
    crossband) link is implemented.
    

    KISS   ON|OFF   OFF   Select KISS mode for TCP-IP.
    Parameters:
       ON  - Put the TNC in KISS mode.
       OFF - The TNC stays in normal AX25 mode.
    
    Either operation of this switch must be followed by a RESTART. In
    the ON condition the computer must be running the appropriate
    software. Implemented in release 1.1.6+ of 25/10/88.
    
    KISS mode provides a simple protocol for use  with a host computer
    system. It bypasses most of the controls in the TNC and allows the
    host computer to control the HDLC frames.  It is up to the host
    computer to take care of the protocol details such as AX25 or
    whatever protocol is desired.
    

    MALL   ON|OFF   ON   Monitor connected and unproto frames.
    Parameters:
       ON  - Monitors both connected and unconnected packet frames.    
       OFF -Monitors only unconnected packet frames.
    
    If MALL is off only UNPROTO packets as determined by LCALLS and
    BUDLIST are monitored.
    

    MAXFRAME   1-7   2   Number of outstanding frames allowed.
    Parameters:
       'n' - 1 to 7. This specifies the maximum number of packets that 
        may be outstanding (unacknowledged) at any one time.
    
    MAXFRAME also specifies the maximum number of contiguous packets
    which can be sent during a transmission.
    
    If throughput is low because of heavy traffic or poor propagation,
    reduce MAXFRAME to 2 or 3.
    
    A relationship between this and PACLEN can improve the efficiency
    of file transfers, allowing long bursts on a good link. 
    

    MCOM   ON|OFF   ON   Monitor only data or all frames. This
    command enables monitoring of supervisory frames when MONITOR is
    ON.
    
    All control fields are decoded so that possible faults in the link
    can be detected. See the protocol section of your manual for more
    information. As with other monitor commands the stations monitored
    are determined by BUDLIST and LCALLS.
    

    MCON   ON|OFF   OFF   Monitor other frames while connected.
    Parameters:
         ON  - Monitor mode remains active when TNC is in connected    
         state.
         OFF - Monitor mode is disabled while connected.
    
    Enables monitoring of other conversations while your TNC is
    connected to another station. Even number round table conferences
    can be had using this command. If set to OFF all other activity on
    the channel is ignored while you are connected to a station.
    

    MFILTER   0-$7F   blank   Up to 4 characters purged from
    data. Specifying up to 4 characters delimited by commas which can
    be filtered out of incoming packets.
    
    To clear the list use MFILTER 00.
    
    Useful if you are using a dumb terminal which interprets control
    characters as commands.
    
    Note:  MFILTER does not WORK at all on TNC-220 version 1.1.6, and
    in many versions filters ALL data, not just monitored. 
    

    MHCLEAR   none   Clear the calls heard list. MHCLEAR is an 
    immediate command to clear the MHEARD list if you want to monitor
    channel activity over a specific period of time.
    

    MHEARD   none   Display calls heard with date/time.
    
    An immediate command to display the list of calls heard since last
    time the buffer was cleared (MHCLEAR or RESTART commands, or
    power-off).
    
    Stations heard via a digipeater are marked with an asterisk (*).
    
    The maximum number of stations monitored in the list is 18 so that
    only the last 18 are displayed. If PASSALL in ON logging of
    stations heard is disabled.
    
    If date and time are set, entries will be time stamped. 
    

    MONITOR   ON|OFF   ON   Monitor mode on. (See 
    BUDLIST,MALL,MCON) Monitoring of packet activity is enabled or
    disabled.
    
    MALL, BUDLIST and LCALLS determine which packets are monitored.
    See also MRPT and MSTAMP.
    
    MCON allows monitoring when connected.
    

    MRPT   ON|OFF   ON   Display digipeater path. 
    Parameters:   
      ON  - Shows connected station identifiers and digipeating        
    	path.
      OFF -Shows only originator and destination calls.
    
    The MRPT command determines whether monitored packets are
    displayed with the digipeat path in the header.
    
    Digipeating stations are shown with an asterisk (*). 
    

    MSTAMP   ON|OFF   OFF   Select time stamping of frames monitored.
    Parameters:
       ON  - Time stamp on monitored frames.
       OFF - No time stamp on monitored frames.
    
    Enables time stamping of monitored packets if date and time are set.
    
    The date format is determined by the DAYUSA command.
    
    You might like to set HEADERLN ON if you are using time stamping
    because of the additional characters in the header. 
    

    MYALIAS   call[-n]   blank   Alternate station identifier.
    Parameters:
       call - This is an alternate call sign for use as a digipeater   
       only.
    
    You must still specify your call sign in the MYCALL command.
    
    Specify an alternate callsign or sub-station ID. Use of this
    command permits normal HID with MYCALL, but an alternate call for
    digipeating.
    

    MYCALL   call[-n]   NOCALL  Station callsign. 
    Parameters:
    'call' - Your call sign. You may also use a substation ID          
    (SSID)   (0-15) if you wish.
    
    Example:
       MYCALL VK2DHU       This tells the TNC my call sign.
    
    All transmitted packets will include this callsign, and any
    connect requests to this callsign can now be accepted. 
    

    PACLEN   0-255   128   Number of Bytes in a data frame.
    Parameters:
      'n' - 0 to 255 specifies the maximum size of the data portion    
       of a packet.
       0  - this is equivalent to a maximum packet size of 256.
    
    In normal CONVERSE mode, a packet will be sent when you press
    <CR>.
    
    However a packet is automatically sent by the TNC when PACLEN
    characters have been received, so the maximum size of any packet
    is determined by PACLEN.  If you wish, you could set PACLEN to
    (say) 20, and the TNC would transmit a packet after 20 characters
    are received from the program.  This might be appropriate for an
    HF link in poor conditions because there would be greater chance
    of getting the full packet through without error if it is a
    smaller packet.  For good links, a larger packet size is better.
    

    PACTIME   E|A   0-250   A   10  TRANS mode packet send
    timer.(n*100ms)
    Parameters:
       'n'   - 0 to 250 specifies 100ms intervals
       Every - Packets are sent EVERY n * 100 ms.
       After - Packets are sent AFTER n * 100 ms from last entry at    
       keyboard.
    
    Example:
       PACT A 25   Send a packet 2.5 seconds after the last character  
       was received.
       PACT E 50   Send a packet every 5 seconds even if data is still 
       being received.
    
    This parameter is always used in Transparent mode and is used in
    Converse mode if CPACTIME is ON. If 'n' is 0, the next packet is
    sent without any wait time, but in no case will a zero length
    packet be sent. The timer only starts when the first character is
    received.
    

    PARITY   'n'   0-3   3   Parity 0=none,1=odd,2=none,3=even.
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 3 specifies if and how the parity bit is set on data 
        flowing between the TNC and the computer.
    
    In normal CONVERSE mode, any parity bit is stripped.
    
    In Transparent mode all 8 bits are sent including parity, if any,
    set.
    
    If PARITY 0 and AWLEN 7 then the 8th bit is set to 0. 
    

    PASS   'n'   0-$7F   $16 ^V   Char to allow any character
    to be sent.
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 127 specifies an ASCII code to be used as the PASS   
        character.
    
    This is the ASCII character code which if inserted in a
    transmission will allow the next following character to be
    transmitted as is when normally it would be interpreted as a
    command to the TNC. This will allow, for example, <CR>to
    be emmbedded in the text as well as other TNC control characters,
    including the <PASS&3062 character itself.
    
    Example:
          CTEXT I am here somewhere^V <CR>
          Give me a minute or two. <CR>
    
          If you didn't use the PASS (^V) the <CR> would have  
          been interpreted by the TNC as the end of the CTEXT message. 
          With the PASS character, the TNC simply added the            
          <CR> into the CTEXT message.
    

    PASSALL   ON|OFF   OFF   Accept only valid CRC frames or
    all.
    Parameters:
       ON  - The TNC will accept packets with invalid CRC's.    
       OFF - The TNC will only accept packets with valid CRC's.
    
    This would allow some monitoring of data even on a noisy channel.
    Logging of callsigns in the MHEARD list is disabled, since they
    may be incorrect.
    
    Normally you would have PASSALL OFF to ensure an error free
    display.
    

    PERSIST   'n'   0-255   127   Set threshold for retry with
    Persist.
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 255 specifies the threshold for the random number    
       generator.  0 gives a low chance of transmitting every           
       SLOTTIME, while a higher value increases the chance of a        
       packet being sent.  255 means transmit without delay.
    
    This feature is useful only if other stations are also using
    PERSIST and SLOTTIME and it is designed to reduce the number of
    "collisions" on the air.
    
    This CSMA method may be selected with the PPERSIST command. 

    PPERSIST   ON|OFF   OFF    Set Persist or Frack retry
    timing.
    Parameters:
       ON  - Sets retry persistence for retry timing.
       OFF - Sets normal Frack timeout for retries.
    
    This parameter would normally be OFF unless you have other
    stations in your area using the PERSIST/SLOTTIME method.
    
    Implemented in release 1.1.6+ of 25/10/88.
    

    RECONNECT   Call   none   Reestablish link via a new path.
    Parameters:
       call Callsign of the station to be reconnected to.
    
    RECONNECT is an immediate command to change the path for the
    current connection and is usually accompanied by a new path list.
    
    The integrity of any outstanding frames is not assured. 
    

    REDISPLAY   'n'   0-$7f   $12(^R)   Specify ASCII character
    for <REDISPLAY>
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 127 specifies an ASCII character code to be used as  
       the <REDISPLAY> character.
    
    The  character will redisplay and allow editing of the
    current input line.
    
    You can also use this key to display a packet which has come in
    while you were typing, before transmitting your own packet. 
    

    RESET   Immediate Cmd   Reset the TNC to default parameters.
    Parameters:
       None
    		    WARNING    WARNING    WARNING
    
    RESET will reinitialise the TNC to its default ROM parameters.
    
    You will lose all your personalized settings and monitor lists if
    you type this command.
    
    If you wish to reinitialise the TNC, but retain your own
    parameters, use RESTART.
    

    RESPTIME   'n'   0-250   10   Delay for sending an ACK
    (n*100ms).
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 250 specifies the number of 100ms intervals for      
       delay.
    
    This command sets the minimum delay before an acknowledgement
    packet is sent. This will be in addition to any delay set by
    DWAIT.
    
    When file transfers are being done, occasionally a collision may
    occur with an ACK frame. If RESPTIME is set to say 10 then this
    will be avoided and an increase in the throughput will result.
    

    RESTART   none   Reset the TNC with user parameters.
    Parameters:
       none
    
    RESTART is an immediate command to reset the TNC but retaining the
    user supplied parameters stored in Battery-Backed RAM.
    
    This has the same effect as switching the TNC's power off then on.
    
    If a complete reinitialisation is required then use RESET, but
    that will require you to reenter all your parameters including
    your MYCALL, etc.
    

    RETRY   0-15   10   Number of retries before disconnect.
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 15 specifies the maximum number of packet retries    
        before disconnecting.
    
    A number of 0 specifies an infinite number of retries.
    
    The time between retries is determined by the FRACK parameter.
    

    SCREENLN   0-255   80   Sets line length on screen.
    Specifying the number of characters to be displayed per line on
    the screen or platen.
    

    SLOTTIME   'n'   0-250   10   Specify time interval for
    PERSIST CSMA
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 250 specifies the time interval before the random    
        number generation for PERSIST CSMA operation.
    
    This parameter would normally not be used unless you have other
    stations in your area using the PERSIST/SLOTTIME method. 
    

    START   'n'   0-$7F   $11   ^Q  Character for XON to
    terminal.
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 127 specifies an ASCII character code to be used as  
        the <START> character.
    

    STREAMSW   'n'   0-$FF   $7C "|" Sets stream switch
    character.
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 255 specifies the ASCII character used to change to  
       another connection stream.
    
    You must be in Command Mode to change streams.
    
    It is suggested you use the "|" ($7C) character as the STREAMSW
    character as this is the default character used on many other
    TNCs.
    
    STREAMSW is equivalent to CHSWITCH on some other systems. 
    

    TRANS   none   Enter transparent mode from CMD:
    An immediate command to put the TNC in transparent mode to allow
    transmission of binary data in full 8 bit format.
    

    TRFLOW   ON|OFF   OFF   Disable terminal trans mode flow
    control.
    Parameters:
       ON  - Enables software flow control in transparent mode.        
       OFF - Disables software flow control in transparent mode.
    
    You should set this parameter OFF.
    

    TRIES   'n'   0-15   none   Set or display retry counter.
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 15 specifies the current RETRY level on the selected 
       stream.
    
    This command is useful for statistical analysis of path conditions
    especially in noisy conditions.
    
    Typing TRIES without an argument the TNC will return the number of
    tries if an outstanding unacknowledged frame exists. If no such
    frame exists, it returns the number of tries required for the
    previous ACK.
    
    In plain English, this means that if you think that you are not
    getting through, you can interrogate this number, and if it is
    approaching REtry, you're about to lose the connection unless
    perhaps you hedge by resetting RETRY bigger or zero, or forcing
    TRIES 0.
    

    TXDELAY   'n'   0-120   30   Keying delay for transmitter (n*10ms).
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 120 specifies the number of 10ms intervals to wait   
       before commencing the transmission.
    
    The TNC will wait for this time after keying the PTT line before
    sending any data.  This is to allow time for relay switching and
    settling and in synthesized rigs for the PLL to lock. 
    

    TXFLOW   ON|OFF   OFF   Disable TNC trans flow control.
    Parameters:
       ON  - Enables software flow control when in transparent mode.   
       OFF - Disables software flow control when in transparent mode.
    
    You should set this parameter OFF.
    
    See also TRFLOW, XFLOW, XON, XOFF.
    

    UNPROTO   call   CQ    Address and path for beacons.
    Parameters:
       'call' - The call sign to be placed in the TO address field for 
       any unconnected packets, such as Beacons.
    
    The 'call' address may include up to 8 digipeaters as well. See
    the CONNECT command for details on how to specify digipeaters.
    

    XFLOW   ON|OFF   ON   XON/XOFF flow control or hardware.
    Parameters:
       ON  - Software flow control is enabled.
       OFF - Hardware flow control is enabled.
    
    Use this ONLY if you have a full RS-232 cable that permits control
    of your serial port via the CTS and RTS lines.
    
    If you don't have a full cable (some "RS-232" cables have only 3
    pins connected), you can still use the system by specifying
    software handshaking (XFLOW ON).
    
    Hardware flow control is the preferred method if you have a
    choice.
    
    See also TRFLOW, TXFLOW, START, STOP, XON, XOFF.
    

    XOFF   'n'   0-$7F   $13(^S)   Character to stop data flow
    to the TNC
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 127 specifies an ASCII character code to be used as  
       the <XOFF> character.
    
    XON   'n'   0-$7F   $11(^Q)   Character to start data flow
    to the TNC
    Parameters:
       'n' - 0 to 127 specifies an ASCII character code to be used as  
       the <XON> character.
    

    Hierarchical Addressing
    

    W0RLI, N6VV, and VE3GYQ have devised a scheme called HIERARCHICAL ADDRESSING. With hierarchical routing designators, we have an opportunity to improve traffic routing. No longer will a missing call in a Bulletin Board System (BBS) forwarding file cause a message to remain unforwarded; System Operators (SYSOPs) will no longer have to burn the midnight oil trying to keep their forward files up to date, and messages will move much more directly toward their destination. The format for hierarchical routing is: addressee @ BBScall.#local area.state-province.country.continent It might look complicated, but it's not. First, note that each section of the format is separated by a period. Codes used for the continents and countries are standards, now accepted throughout the world. You should be able to find a list of them in the file section of your BBS. State and province codes are the recognized two-character codes established by the American and Canadian Post Offices. These may be found in the Callbook, your phone directory, or any zip code listing. Don't guess on the state and province code if you aren't sure what it is, and make sure you use only the two-letter abbreviation. You could send the message to the wrong state or province or keep it from being forwarded altogether. The code for the local area is optional, since most of you have no idea what code is being used in upper New York state or in Iowa City, IA. If you do know it, please use it, since it will help get the message closer to where it's going. The code for Northern California is #NCA, and the code for Southern California is #SCA. You should use the appropriate one in the signature line at the end of each message you send. For messages going outside of the US or Canada, the local area is again optional and the state-province is not used. Using the hierarchical format, here are some routing examples: WB9LOZ @ W6PW.#NCA.CA.USA.NOAM WB6LYI @ K6VE.#SCA.CA.USA.NOAM KC3XC @ N4QQ.MD.USA.NOAM VE3XYZ @ VE3RPT.ON.CAN.NOAM JA1ABC @ JA1KSO.#42.JPN.AS VK4AHD @ AX4BBS.AUS.OC You'll note that the local area code is preceded by the octothorpe (now, how's that for a $5 word?), better known as the number or pound sign. The reason is that the Japanese network, and possibly other areas, use routing numbers for the local area, which could get confused with zip and postal codes. Using the # on all local area codes will eliminate forwarding problems. We need to emphasize two very important points: hierarchical addressing DOES NOT indicate a forwarding PATH, and ONLY ONE BBS call should be included in the address. A list of BBS calls separated by periods will not get your message to its destination. In fact, it can cause your message to loop between BBSs and your message probably won't be delivered. The addressing scheme is said to be one area inside another area. Using this hierarchical address as an example, WB9LOZ @ W6PW.#NCA.CA.USA.NOAM, here's how you would describe the address: "WB9LOZ at W6PW which is in Northern California which is in California which is in the USA which is in North America". There are several BBS programs that implement hierarchical addressing now, including the W0RLI, WA7MBL, AA4RE, MSYS and WD6CMU software. Check the ID block you receive when you log into your BBS. If it has an H in it, such as [RLI-11.11-CH$] or [4RE-02.10-HM$], your system supports it. USING THE HIERARCHICAL ADDRESS: This next section explains how the BBS software uses the hierarchical addressing scheme. We first have to understand how the software goes about matching items in the "@ BBS" address with items in the forward file. For an example, let's say that we send a message to Tom, W3IWI, who operates his own BBS and is located near Baltimore, Maryland. We would enter: SP W3IWI @ W3IWI.MD.USA.NOAM If the only entries in the forward file are California BBSs plus a list of state abbreviations, let's see how the message would be forwarded. The first thing the software does is attempt to find a match between the items in the forward file and the left-most item in the address field. In our case, it would not find W3IWI. If there isn't a match, it then moves to the next section to the right. It would find MD and that match would allow the message to be forwarded. If it had found the call W3IWI, that entry would take precedence (because it is more left in the field than MD) and would of course also ensure delivery. Here are some comments from the ones who devised the hierarchical addressing: "There is another added benefit to this scheme. It involves "gatewaying" between the BBS world and other networks, such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) via the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). Much of the pioneer work in setting up the gatewaying protocols has been done by NN2Z, N3EUA, and PA0GRI, amongst others. The W0RLI BBS package allows for the forwarding of mail between the Amateur Radio BBS world and the commercial SMTP world. Of note is the fact that the WA7MBL package has allowed such message exporting and importing for some time now. This means that we can take advantage of the TCP/IP host-names and their domain or hierarchical format for forwarding." "Thus it is possible to send mail from the BBS to VE3BTZ as ve3btz@pc.ve3btz.ampr.org or from SMTP to w0rli@w0rli.or.usa.noam and not have any ambiguity." "The authors hope that this paper will serve as a starting place for improved message routing by means of implicit routing. Low-level (VHF) BBSs need only maintain state or province or country codes for distant BBSs, and route such traffic to their nearest HF Gateway. In turn, the HF station routes it to the desired state, where the receiving Gateway station would have a detailed list of the BBSs it serves."



    SECTION II -- MSDOS

    The Goal of the MSDOS Training Section

    The goal of this MSDOS section is to provide you with "survival" skills which will enable you to properly configure and use the paKet Program described later in this course.


    What is MSDOS?
    

    MSDOS stands for MicroSoft Disk Operating System. We will also refer to it as DOS (Disk Operating System).

    Since Microsoft Corporation has done most of the delopment work over the years, the word MSDOS appropriately gives Microsoft Corporation credit for the work they have done.

    If you were to research the history of MSDOS, it would take on many of the characteristics of a daytime television soap opera. In the early 1980s, Bill Gates of Microsoft Corporation marketed his MSDOS product so cleverly that IBM felt compelled to come up with their own version called PCDOS in order to increase their revenues. From now on whenever we refer to DOS, we will be referring to the Microsoft Corporation version of MSDOS which is used on PCs as a primary operating system.

    There have been many "incarnations" of DOS, the latest of which at this time is version 6.22. Our training will be correct for all versions from 5.0 to 6.22 except as noted. If the version of DOS that you are using precedes 5.0, we recommend that you upgrade.

    How Much MSDOS Do I HAVE to Know?

    Very few people buy their PCs to learn MSDOS. Usually they buy their PCs so that they can use software that pertains to a hobby or business need. So many times we have heard "I just want to learn about Packet Radio, NOT MSDOS. Unfortunately, chances are you can't use Packet Radio efficiently without learning SOME DOS.

    We understand how overwhelming it is when you buy your first PC. There are so many things you have to learn all at once!

    Your instructor for this section will attempt teach only those "MSDOS Survival Skills" which are needed in a "byte sized" 3-4 hour session.

    This is not meant to be a comprehensive MSDOS course, but from this course you should be able to gain enough knowledge to move on to the other Packet Radio essentials without coming up against an MSDOS "roadblock".

    NOTE: From now on, whenever you see <Enter> that means you press the ENTER key. If you see <F10>, you press the <F10> key. If you see <Alt-F1> then you press the <Alt> key and while continuing to hold the Alt key down, you press the <F1> key.


    What is a File?
    

    EVERYTHING in MSDOS is saved as a file. Each file has a name and a location on the disk (or diskette). The name of the file, the directory that it is in and the location of the beginning and the end of the file is stored in a "special" place at the beginning of the disk(ette) called the File Allocation Table (FAT) which is "invisible" to you, the user.


    What is a Path?
    

    Prior to DOS 2.0, all files were in one gigantic, messy directory. Beginning with DOS 2.0, it became possible to include the "path" of the file along with the "name". For example, the file called "PAKET.EXE" is really "C:\PAKET\PAKET.EXE". Thus, the name of the file includes the "path" where the file is located along with the name. The concept of "Path" is an area of great difficulty to many new MSDOS users but it is of great importance, so we will include this in our training. In the AUTOEXEC.BAT file you can tell your computer where to "look" for important files using the PATH command.


    What Happens When I "Boot" My Computer?
    
    When you "boot" your computer, a number of things take place,
    depending whether you "soft booted" or "hard booted" your
    computer.
    
       Soft Boot 
    
          A "Soft Boot" occurs when you hit the <Ctrl-Alt-Del> keys.   
          A "soft boot" bypasses the Power-On Self-Test (POST),       
          skipping some of the hardware initialization routines.
    
       Hard Boot 
    
          A "Hard Boot" occurs when you turn off the power switch and  
          then turn it on again after waiting approximately 5-10       
          seconds.  This is the best way to "Boot" in that it          
          completely resets all hardware and software parameters,      
          most importantly the Serial Ports used by your Packet Radio  
          TNC and/or modem.  If you are having problems with your TNC  
          and/or modem this is the best kind of "boot" to use.
    
    No matter which way you "boot" your computer, the CONFIG.SYS and
    the AUTOEXEC.BAT files are processed automatically.  These two
    files contain much of the memory management commands as well as
    other commands which are meant to be processed automatically
    during the "boot" process.  The CONFIG.SYS and the AUTOEXEC.BAT
    files can be changed or "edited" to suit your needs.  If editing
    these files is needed, we recommend that an MSDOS expert be
    consulted.
    

    The "Root" Directory
    
    One of the most frustrating things for an MSDOS expert happens
    when a new trainee calls you on the telephone to ask for help and
    they don't know which directory they are in.  You say "Are you in
    the 'Root' directory" or "Go  to the 'Root' directory" and they
    don't know what you are talking about.  What is the "Root"
    directory, anyway?
    
    There is only one "root" directory on each drive.  It is the
    "main" directory of the hard disk or diskette.  You can be sure
    that you are in the "root" directory by CAREFULLY typing:
    
    		CD\ <Enter>
    
    All other directories "spring" from the "root" directory.  The
    trainee should be able to tell from the DOS prompt which directory
    they are in.
    
    If the DOS prompt says:
    
       C:\>
    
    chances are, they are in the "root" directory (assuming that the
    PROMPT $P$G command was invoked in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file).
    
    If the DOS prompt says:
    
       C:\DOS
    
    then chances are, the user is in the DOS directory, NOT the "Root"
    directory.
    

    Getting MSDOS Help
    
    To get help from the MSDOS prompt, just type:
    
       HELP <Enter>
    
    This will take you into a special Help program.  You will see a
    main screen with generalized listing of possible Help topics.
    
    You can use your mouse or your <Tab> keys to select the topic for
    you need help and then after the topic is  highlighted, press the
    <Enter> key for details.  When you are done, click with
    your mouse on FILE EXIT or  using keys, type <Alt-F> <X> to exit
    back to the DOS prompt.
    
    If you need help on a specific topic, for example the DIR command,
    you would type:
    
       HELP DIR <Enter>
    
    This will skip the main screen an take you directly to the DIR
    command details.
    

    Formatting a Diskette
    
    The proper syntax for the FORMAT command is:
    
       FORMAT drive: [/V[:label]] [/Q] [/U] [/F:size][/B|/S] [/C]     
    
    You should NEVER format a hard drive (usually Drive C: or Drive D:), 
    unless you have a backup of some sort. 
    
    You CAN format floppy drives, but you should be aware of the
    physical size and the software limitations for the floppy drives
    on your particular PC.  These limitations are determined by
    "hardware".  If you have any questions about your "hardware
    limitations", ask your local PC expert.
    

    Changing Drives
    
    Changing drives is easy.  You simply type in the drive you wish to
    change to followed by a colon (:) and then press <Enter>:
    
    Let us say that you want to change over to drive A:
    
       You type A:<Enter>
    
    It is important that you place a diskette in drive A: BEFORE you
    attempt to change drives or you will get an error message which
    will look this:
    
    		Not ready error reading drive A                    
    		Abort, Retry, Fail?
    
    It is easy to make this mistake.  If it happens, just place a
    formatted diskette in drive A and type R (for Retry). 
    

    The Tree Command
    
    The Tree Command gives you a visual "picture" of the directory of
    your drive.  It should be invoked from the "root" directory for
    best results.
    
    The tree Command is most expeditiously used in versions 5.0 or
    above of MSDOS.
    
    The Tree Command has changed dramatically from DOS version 5.0 to
    6.22.  If your "version" of DOS precedes  5.0, the Tree Command
    may be of limited use to you.
    

    Getting a Directory Listing
    

    You will use the DIR command to find out what files are on a disk(ette) or more precisely, in a directory. DIR A: <Enter> will give you a directory of all of the files on A: DIR B:*.wk1 <Enter> will give you a directory of all the LOTUS 1-2-3 worksheets on drive B: DIR C:\123\*.EXE <Enter> will give you a directory of all the files with a suffix of .EXE in the C:\123 directory. The DIR Command has some "options" which can be VERY useful. Let us say that you know that there is a file called MYFIL.TXT somewhere on your hard disk, but you can't remember exactly which directory it is in. To find the file MYFIL.TXT ANYWHERE ON YOUR HARD DISK, you would type from the "Root" directory: DIR MYFIL.TXT /S The DIR command would look for the file MYFIL.TXT in the root directory INCLUDING all of the subdirectories until it found MYFIL.TXT. Sometimes, when you use the DIR command (especially from the "Root" directory, you may find that the list of files is so large that it "scrolls" off the top of the screen. Is there a way to look at all of the files ONE PAGE AT A TIME? The answer is YES, using the /P parameter. Let us say that you want to look at EVERY SINGLE FILE ON THE HARD DISK C: and you want to "pause" at the end of each screen, so that you have an opportunity to see everything as it goes by. First, you get into the "root" directory: CD\ Then type DIR *.* /S /P The *.* parameter says "look at every file". The /S parameter says "look at subdirectories too" and the /P parameter says "gimme one screen at a time".


    Moving Around From Directory to Directory on Your Hard Disk
    
    The command for changing directory is CD.  Let's say you are in
    the root directory of your hard drive, which looks like this C:\>,
    and you want to go into the LOTUS 1-2-3 directory, which looks
    like this C:\123>.  You type at the DOS prompt CD 123 <Enter>.  
    Now your prompt will look like this:    
       C:\123>
    
    Some other examples are:
    
       Prompt                                          Prompt
       Before           You Type This                  After
    
       C:\123>          CD\ <Enter>                    C:\>
       C:\123>          CD C:\DOS <Enter>              C:\DOS>
       C:\123>          CD.. <Enter>                   C:\>
       C:\>             CD WP51\DATA <Enter>           C:\WP51\DATA>      
       C:\WP51\DATA>    CD.. <Enter>                   C:\WP51> 
    

    Copying Files
    
    The command for copying a file is COPY.  If you want to copy a
    file called filename.txt from your A: drive to your B: drive, you
    can type COPY A:FILENAME.TXT B: <Enter>.
    
    If you are a copying file from the A: drive to your C: drive,
    first go to the directory on the C: drive where you want the file
    copied using the CD command as described above.  For example,
    let's say that you want to copy the file named filename.txt in
    drive A: to your DW4 directory.  First you get into the DW4
    directory by typing CD DW4  <Enter>.  Now your prompt will
    look like this C:\DW4>.  Now type COPY A:filename.txt
    <Enter>.  Here are some other ways you can use the COPY
    command:
    
       You Type This           This is what happens
    
       COPY A:*.* B:           All files are copied to drive B:        
       COPY A:f*.* B:          All files beginning with F are copied   
    			   to B:
       COPY B:m*.wk1* A:       All files beginning with M and which    
    			   have a suffix of .WK1 are copied to A:.
    
    Another way to make shortcuts is using the wildcard, which is the
    question mark (?).  Let's pretend that you have these files on a
    diskette in drive A: 
    
       ABCDEFGH.TXT            ABDEFGHI.TXT            ABCRRRRR.RRR    
       ABCJJDGH.TXT            HBCDEFGH.DOC
    
    You type COPY A:ABC?????.??? B:
    
    These files are copied to drive B:
    
        ABCDEFGH.TXT           ABCRRRRR.RRR            ABCJJDGH.TXT
    
    (All of these files begin with ABC)
    
    Now, if you type COPY ABC?????.TXT, only ABCDEFGH.TXT and
    ABCJJDDGH.TXT will be copied over to drive B:, because only these
    files begin with ABC and have a suffix of .TXT!  If you were to
    type COPY  A:???D???H.???, files ABCDEFGH.TXT and HBCDEFGH.DOC
    would be copied because they are the only files with D as the
    fourth character and H as the eighth character of the name.
    
    These "masks" (the * and the ?) can be used in many other commands
    besides the COPY command and they can be VERY useful. 

    Deleting Files
    
    The DEL or ERASE command is very much like the copy command.  It
    can be used in two ways:
    
    	DEL A:filename.txt
    		or
    	ERASE A:filename.txt
    
    If, for example you wanted to delete all of the LOTUS 1-2-3
    spreadsheets in the C:\123> directory, you would type:
    
    	DEL C:\123\*.wk1 or ERASE C:\123\*.wk1
    
    The wildcard (?) can be used as described in the section on the
    COPY command:
    
    	DEL C:\WP51\DATA\G???????.DOC
    
    This would delete all files beginning with the letter "G" that
    have a suffix of .DOC
    

    Creating a Directory
    
    The command for creating a directory is MD, which is short for
    "make a directory".  In order to create a directory, YOU SHOULD
    BE IN THE ROOT DIRECTORY.  For example, if you wanted to create a
    directory for your DisplayWrite 4 program files, you would first
    get into the root directory of drive C: (if you're not already
    there) by typing CD\ <Enter>.  The DOS prompt should
    always look this on a hard drive -- C:\> before you begin to 
    create a directory.  Once you have verified that you are in the
    root directory, you type MD DW4 (or MKDIR DW4).  This will create
    a directory C:\DW4> which can be used for your DisplayWrite 4
    files (directories can be created from directories other than the
    root directory, but it is my recommendation that you hold off on
    doing this until you have had a little more experience).
    
    If you want to create a subdirectory in the DW4 directory
    (for your DW4 documents, for example) you can type this from the
    root directory:
    
    	MD C:\DW4\DOC
    

    Removing a Directory
    
    Before removing a directory with the RD (or RMDIR) command, YOU
    MUST FIRST DELETE ALL OF THE FILES IN THE DIRECTORY.  Get into the
    directory with the CD command and delete all of the files with the 
    DEL *.* command.  Now go to the root directory with the CD\
    command and type RD and the name of the  directory name.  Let's
    say that you decide that you want to take the WordPerfect files
    off of your hard disk:
    
    Type CD WP51 <Enter> to get into the WordPerfect directory.  
    Your prompt will look like this 
       C:\WP51>
    
    Type DEL *.* <Enter>  The screen will ask you, "ARE YOU SURE? (y/n)"
    
    If you respond with "y" (for yes) and then press <Enter>,
    all of the files will be deleted in that directory.
    
    Now you must go back to your root directory using the CD\ command. 
    you can verify that you are in your root directory by looking at
    your DOS prompt, which should look like this: C:\>
    
    Now you can remove the directory by typing RD WP51 <Enter>.
    
    There are two more rules that you need to remember when you plan
    to remove directories:
    
       1)   You cannot remove the root directory.
    
       2)   You must remove subsub directorie(s) before you can remove 
    	a sub directory.  For example, if you have a C:\DW4\DOC    
    	directory, you must first remove the C:\DW4\DOC directory  
    	before you can remove the C:\DW4 directory.  We know that  
    	this may be a little confusing at first, but it will       
    	begin to make more sense after you have gained a little    
    	more experience.
    


    SECTION III -- The paKet Program

    The Goal of the paKet Program Section

    The goal of this paKet Program Section will be to provide you with background training about configuring and using the paKet Program.

    In Ventura County, a situation exists which greatly simplifies and potentially enhances Packet Radio training when compared with other areas. The overwhelming majority of our TNCs are Kantronics Communicator-3 (KPC-3) TNCs and likewise, most people are using the paKet Program communications software. If you were to look at other areas outside of Ventura County, you would find a more heterogenous mixture of different TNCs and communications software packages.

    Because of our unique pattern of consistency with regard to our KPC-3 TNCs and the use of the paKet Program software, we are not limited to generalities in our training in order to address every hardware/software combination. Instead, we have an opportunity to provide focused training on the KPC-3 TNC and the paKet Program software with some assurance that our training will be relevant to the vast majority of our students. Do NOT be alarmed if you don't have a KPC-3 TNC! In addition to the Kantronics KPC-3, the paKet Program will work on a variety of TNCs such the Kantronics KAM, KPC-1, KPC-2, KPC-4, KPC-2400, the Baycom, the PK-88, the PK-232MBX, the MFJ-1270, MFJ-1274, MFJ-1278 and the DSP-12 to name a few.

    In fact, the paKet Program will work on just about any TNC, so long as its command set is based on the TAPR TNC-2 standard. You will have to look long and hard to find a TNC which is NOT based on this standard!


    What is the paKet Program?
    
    The paket Program is just one of many programs which are available
    to be used for Packet Radio.  We are only teaching the paKet
    Program in this course because it is widely used in Ventura County
    and because it works with a range of TNCs.  Because of time
    constraints, it would be impractical (if not impossible!) to teach
    all of the different software packages.
    
    The paKet Program was written with 2-meter Packet Radio in mind. 
    In some instances, such as with the multi-mode  TNCs, you will
    need to use the manufacturer's proprietary software in order to
    utilize some of the higher functions such as Weather Fax (WEFAX).  
    
    While using the paKet Program with a multi-mode TNC, you will be 
    pretty much confined the 2-meter Packet Radio mode.  You can always 
    switch to the TNC manufacturer's proprietary software for the "fancy stuff".
    

    Hardware Requirements
    
    	A spare serial port on your computer
    
    	A TNC and power supply
    
    	A serial cable with the proper adapters to connect the TNC 
    	to the computer serial port
    
    	Customized cable(s) to connect your radio to your TNC
    

    Installing the paKet Program Software
    
    
    WARNING!!
    Some knowledge of MSDOS is required for proper installation of the paKet program software. At a minimum, you should know how to make directories using the MD command, copy files using the COPY command and get a directory listing using the DIR command. You should also be familiar with the SHAREWARE program PKUNZIP, how to change drives and have available a copy of the NORTON Editor or some other line editor which can work in a "limited" memory environment. If you do NOT have a basic knowledge of MSDOS and/or the resources listed above, we recommend that you enlist the aid of a friend who has more experience. Please do NOT call your friend at 10:00PM, expecting to be "walked" through the installation process over the telephone in five minutes. Be considerate. Invite your friend over, have some fudge brownies and some cold milk available. Set aside an hour for installation and testing. Getting a Copy of the paKet Program Software The paKet Program Software is available on the ARRL "landline" BBS at: (203) 666-0578 You can get a copy locally by calling one of your instructors.

    Disk Requirements:
    
    We recommend that the paKet program be installed on a hard disk
    and that is what we are going to cover in our training.  However,
    it is possible to install the program on floppy disks with the
    following:
    
    If you are Installing to a Hard Disk or 1.44MB diskette:           
       It should all fit on the one volume (if space is available!).
    
    If you are Installing to a 1.2MB diskette:
       It should all fit on the one diskette but you might have to     
       delete a couple of the miscellaneous files or utilities         
       included with paKet.
    
    If you are Installing to 720K diskette:
       You will need 2 blank diskettes;
    
    If you are Installing to 360K diskette (not recommended):          
       You will need to have 3 or 4 blank diskettes available,         
       depending on the options chosen.  The later versions cannot be  
       run on 360K diskettes.  You will have to use an older version   
       to do this.
    

    UnZipping the Original File
    
    What you will start out with will be a single, very large file
    called something like this:
    
    	PAKET61.ZIP
    
    It could be called a number of other things, depending what
    version it is and also how it was prepared.  The numbers in the
    name above indicate that the example is version 6.1 of the paKet
    Program software.  The suffix (ZIP) indicates the file is
    compressed in the PKZIP format.  The PKZIP format is the most
    common format, because it is very efficient at compressing the
    file to the smallest possible size.
    
    In order to uncompress the huge file into the smaller files needed
    for the installation process, you will have a copy of 
    PKUNZIP.EXE, a SHAREWARE program available from:
    
    PKWARE, Inc.
    9025 North Deerwood Drive
    Brown Deer, WI  53223
    
    Copies of PKUNZIP are available locally.  If you don't have a
    copy, contact one of your instructors.
    
    Step # 1
    
       From your root directory at the DOS prompt create a temporary   
       directory using the MD command.  You may name the temporary     
       directory anything you want, but DON'T name it PAKET!
    
       Assuming that your hard drive is drive C, for example:
    
          C:\> MD PTEMP <Enter>
    
        NOTE:   From now on, whenever you see <Enter> that     
    	    means you press the ENTER key.  If you see             
    	    <F10>, you press the <F10> key.  If    
    	    you see <Alt-F1> then you press the            
    	    <Alt> key and while continuing to hold the     
    	    <Alt> key down, you press the <F1>     
    	    key.
    
    Step # 2
    
       Now get into the temporary directory you created by typing CD  
       PTEMP:
    
          C:\> CD PTEMP <Enter>
    
       The DOS prompt will now look like this:
    
          C:\PTEMP>
    
       If your DOS prompt DOESN'T look like that, type PROMPT $P$G    
       <Enter>
    
       Please remain in this directory for the next three steps.
       
    Step # 3
    
       Now copy the PKUNZIP.EXE file into the C:\PTEMP directory.  If, 
       for example, the PKUNZIP.EXE file was on a floppy in drive a,   
       you would type:
    
          COPY A:\PKUNZIP.EXE C:\PTEMP <Enter>
    
    Step # 4
    
       Now to we will unzip the PAKET61.ZIP file.  Let us say that the 
       PAKET61.ZIP file is on a floppy disk in drive a.  From the      
       C:\PTEMP directory, type:
    
          PKUNZIP A:\PAKET61 <Enter>
    
    Step # 5
    
       Now you are ready to run the paKet Program software INSTALL     
       program.
    
       Before you do this, make sure that your hardware is ready; that 
       the serial cable is connected to your TNC and your computers    
       serial port and that your TNC is powered up before you do this. 
       Also, connect the customized cable(s) that go between the       
       radio and the TNC and turn the radio to a packet simplex        
       frequency i.e., 145.030 or 145.710.
    
       From your temporary C:\PTEMP directory type:
    
          INSTALL <Enter>
    
       The INSTALL program is fairly self-explanatory.  At the         
       beginning you will have an opportunity to read some documents   
       which will be useful to you during the installation process and 
       later when you are using the program.  We recommend that you    
       take your time (as does the author of the paKet Program) and    
       peruse them.  When you are done reading the documentation       
       material press  to move on to the next step.  DO NOT hit   
       the <Esc> key, or you will be bumped back to the DOS    
       prompt.  If you accidently hit the  <Esc> key during    
       the installation process, you will have to start the INSTALL    
       program over from the beginning.
    
       Later, the INSTALL program will ask you for some important      
       information about your link between your TNC and your computer; 
       COM Port #, Baud Rate, etc.  Try to answer this information as  
       best you can  now, but you will be able to change these         
       parameters later if need be.  We will be discussing this data   
       in more detail later when we discuss "Configuring the paKet  
       Program Setup".
    
       Towards the end of the INSTALL program, you will be asked for   
       your callsign and your Serial Number. 
    
       Type in your callsign.  If you haven't registered your copy of  
       the paKet Program software, you won't have a Serial Number      
       yet.  Not to worry.  Just press the <Enter> key for     
       now.  You can register later after you have had an opportunity  
       to evaluate the software.
    
       After the INSTALL program has run its course, you will find     
       yourself back at the DOS prompt in the C:\PAKET directory.
    
       From now on, whenever you want to run the paKet Program you     
       will first get into the C:\PAKET directory and just type PAKET  
       <Enter>.
    

    Example of Creating the paKet Program Subdirectories From DOS
    
    While we are back to the DOS prompt, let's take care of some
    housekeeping.  We are going to want to store our incoming and
    outgoing Packet Radio files in some sort of logical way so that
    everything doesn't get all lumped up in one giant messy directory. 
    To achieve this, we are going to create some subdirectories using
    the MD (make directory) command.  We are going to assume that your
    paKet Program is in the default C:\PAKET directory for now.
    
    First go to the ROOT directory by typing CD\ <Enter>
    
    Now your DOS prompt will look like this:
    
       C:\>
    
    Next we will create the default directories the system uses when
    we receive an ASCII text file or when we send one.  Before we do
    this, we need to pause a moment and think about how we want to do
    this so that it reflects your needs as a user.  Ask yourself the
    following questions:
    
       1)   Do I feel comfortable copying files from one directory to  
    	another in the DOS environment?
    
       2)   Am I a file "security" freak?
    
    If the answer was YES to both of these questions, then we
    recommend that you type the following using the DOS  MD (Make
    Directory) command:
    
       MD C:\PAKET\TRECV <Enter>
       MD C:\PAKET\TSEND <Enter>
    
    	OR
    
    If your answers to the questions above included one or more NOs,
    then VERY CAREFULLY type:
    
       MD C:\PAKET\TEXT <Enter>
    
    Next we will create the default directories the system uses when
    we receive or send a binary file.  If the answer was YES to both
    of the questions asked above, then we recommend that you type the
    following using the DOS MD (Make Directory) command:
    
       MD C:\PAKET\BRECV <Enter>
       MD C:\PAKET\BSEND <Enter>
    
    	OR
    
    If your answers to the questions above included one or more NOs,
    then VERY CAREFULLY type:
    
       MD C:\PAKET\BINARY <Enter>
    
    Then continue with the following commands in a like manner:
    
       MD C:\PAKET\LOG <Enter>
       MD C:\PAKET\PMS <Enter>
       MD C:\PAKET\SCRIPTS <Enter>
    
    After you have individually typed all of the commands listed
    above, go back into the C:\PAKET directory by typing:
    
       CD PAKET <Enter>
    

    Configuring the paKet Program with <Alt-Z>
    
    Get into the C:\PAKET directory and type PAKET <Enter>
    
    Now Type <Alt-Z>
    
    NOTE:   When you type <Alt-Z> <Enter>, you will    
    	see on our screen what is called a "pop up" menu.  In this 
    	"pop-up" menu and others which are available in the paKet  
    	Program you will be given selections or "options" to guide 
    	you.  You will use the <Up-Arrow> and/or the       
    	<Down-Arrow> keys to select the "option" you are   
    	interested in and then press the <Enter> key to    
    	goto the "option" you have selected.  When you have        
    	finished, and wish go close the "pop up" menu and save     
    	your changes (if you made any changes) just press the      
    	<Esc> key.  You may have to press the              
    	<Esc> more than one time to close all of the "pop  
    	up" menus which were opened.
    
       Option 1 -- Serial Port 
    
          COM Port 
    
    	 Starting with the COM Port, press <Enter> to      
    	 toggle from COM1 to COM2, COM3, COM4 and back again.      
    	 Only those COM ports actually recognized by your system   
    	 will be offered, so if you do not have a COM3 port        
    	 installed you will not be given that option!
    
          Baud Rate 
    
    	 Pressing <Enter> on the baud rate field will      
    	 cycle through the valid values which range from 50 baud   
    	 to 19200 baud (9600 baud is recommended).
    
    	 This option sets your COMPUTER's serial port baud rate;   
    	 the TNC also has a baud rate setting which must match the 
    	 value chosen here.
    
          Parity and Data Bits
    
    	 You may set Parity and Data Bits to any of the displayed  
    	 values but paKet prefers a setting of No Parity and 8     
    	 Data Bits. So unless you have special reason to change,   
    	 please set Parity to None. You will notice the Data Bits  
    	 parameter will automatically be set to the correct value.
    
          Stop Bits
    
    	 Stop Bits would normally be set to 1.
    
       Option 5 -- KB Macros/Auto commands 
    
          Option 2 -- Begin Auto Commands  
    
    	 The "Begin Auto Command" is an optional command that may  
    	 be sent to the TNC when paKet is  starting up.  We        
    	 recommend that you type in the following here:
    
    	    MON ON ^M <Enter>                              
    	    CMSG ON ^M <Enter>
    
    	 Press <Esc> to save
    
          Option 3 -- End Auto Commands
    
    	 The "End Auto Command" is an optional command that may be 
    	 sent to the TNC when paKet is proceeding to shut down.    
    	 We recommend that you type in the following here:
    
    	    MON OFF ^M <Enter>                             
    	    CMSG PBBS ^M <Enter>
    
    	 Press <Esc> to save
    
       Option 8 -- Directories and Files
    
          Default paKet Directory
    
    	 There are a number of miscellaneous files used by         
    	 paKet and these files should be included in this          
    	 default paKet directory.  The easy way to manage          
    	 this is to make this entry the same as the                
    	 directory where you have the paKet program,               
    	 PAKET.EXE and its configuration file, PAKET.CFG.
    
          Text Recv directory
    
    	 You should use the SAME directory name here that          
    	 you used in "Example of Creating the paKet Program        
    	 Subdirectories From DOS".  This is the default            
    	 directory the system uses when we receive an ASCII        
    	 text file.
    
    	 When you press the <F6> key to receive a          
    	 text file, paKet will pop up the Directory Window         
    	 showing this "Text Recv" directory as the default         
    	 directory, but you can select any                         
    	 drive/directory/filename you wish.  If you choose         
    	 to override the default "Text Recv" directory, you        
    	 have to be careful to use the EXACT NAMES that were       
    	 used when the directories were created from DOS.
    
    	    For example C:\PAKET\TRECV\
    
    
          Text Send directory
    
    	 You should use the SAME directory name here that          
    	 you used in "Example of Creating the paKet Program        
    	 Subdirectories From DOS".  The first time you press       
    	 <F5> to send a text file, paKet will pop          
    	 up a Directory Window displaying this "Text Send          
    	 directory". If the file you want to send is in some       
    	 other drive or directory, you can change the              
    	 display to show that other drive and or directory         
    	 to help you select the file.
    
    	     For example C:\PAKET\TSEND\
    
    	 NOTE:   You may wish to use the same directory name       
    	 for Text Recv and Text Send.  For example:
    
    	    Text Recv directory     C:\PAKET\TEXT\
    
    	    Text Send directory     C:\PAKET\TEXT\
    
    	 Using the same directory to store both Text Recv          
    	 and Text Send files is recommended by some because        
    	 of simplicity and ease of use later on when you           
    	 learn how to receive and send text files on a disk.
    
    	 However, the price you pay for taking this easier         
    	 and simpler route is a "compromise" in text file          
    	 "security".
    
    	 If you are DOS "literate" and if you are "security        
    	 oriented", you will probably wish to keep the Text        
    	 Recv and the Text Send directories separate by            
    	 giving them separate unique names.
    
    	 If you are new to DOS and/or if you aren't                
    	 particularly worried about text file "security",          
    	 then you will probably wish to use the same               
    	 directory to store both Text Recv and Text Send           
    	 files.  You do this by giving the Text Recv               
    	 directory and the Text Send directory the same            
    	 name
    
          Binary Recv directory
    
    	 You should use the SAME directory name here that you used 
    	 in "Example of Creating the paKet Program Subdirectories 
    	 From DOS".  This is the directory the system uses when we 
    	 receive a Binary File.
    
    	    For example C:\PAKET\BRECV\
    
    
          Binary Send directory
    
    	 You should use the SAME directory name here that you used 
    	 in "Example of Creating the  paKet Program Subdirectories 
    	 From DOS".  This is the directory the system uses when we 
    	 send a Binary File.
    
    	    For example C:\PAKET\BSEND\
    
    	 NOTE:   You may wish to use the same directory name for   
    	 Binary Recv and Binary Send.  For example:
    
    	    Binary Recv directory           C:\PAKET\BINARY\       
    	    Binary Send directory           C:\PAKET\BINARY\
    
    	 Using the same directory to store both Binary Recv and    
    	 Binary Send files is recommended by some because of       
    	 simplicity and ease of use later on when you learn how to 
    	 receive and send binary files on a disk.
    
    	 However, the price you pay for taking this easier         
    	 and simpler route is a "compromise" in Binary file        
    	 "security".
    
    	 If you are DOS "literate" and if you are "security        
    	 oriented", you will probably wish to keep the Binary      
    	 Recv and the Binary Send directories separate by          
    	 giving them separate unique names.
    
    	 If you are new to DOS and/or if you aren't                
    	 particularly worried about text file "security",          
    	 then you will probably wish to use the same               
    	 directory to store both Binary Recv and Binary Send       
    	 files.  You do this by giving the Binary Recv             
    	 directory and the Binary Send directory the same          
    	 name
    
          Log File directory 
    
    	 This is the default directory the system uses for the     
    	 disk log file.
    
    	    For example C:\PAKET\LOG\
    
          PMS Directory
    
    	 There are two files maintained by the system for the PMS, 
    	 one to contain the messages themselves (PAKETPMS.DAT)    
    	 and the other for an index into the message system        
    	 (PAKETPMS.IDX).  The directory specified here is where    
    	 these files will reside.
    
    	    For example C:\PAKET\PMS\
    
          Scripts directory
    
    	 Your Scripts may be stored in any directory because when  
    	 you press <Alt-S> to run a paKet Script, a        
    	 Directory Window will pop up to help you select the       
    	 desired Script file, and you can swap and change until    
    	 you find the right directory.
    
    	    For example C:\PAKET\SCRIPTS\   
    
       Option 9 -- Miscellaneous Options
    
          Station Callsign and Operator's Name
    
    	 Make sure to tell the paKet Program who you are!!  Your   
    	 callsign is REQUIRED.
    
          AUTO LOG (on while connected)
    
    	 Set this to No for now.
    

    
    Using the paKet Program Software
    
    Getting Help and Exiting the paKet Program.
    
       It is our training philosophy that first and foremost a new     
       paKet user needs to learn how to get help when needed and how   
       to escape back to DOS at the end of a session.  We believe that 
       knowing how to do these things will enable you to be more       
       relaxed and confident while you are learning the basic skills.  
       We are going to place these issues in a separate category to   
       emphasize their importance and then we will move on to other    
       subjects.
    


    The Display Help Screen -- <F1>

    F1 -Help Alt-A -Turn Alerts OFF
    F2 -Turn Log File ON Alt-B - Send a BREAK signal to TNC
    F3 - Turn REMOTE mode ON Alt-C - Connect to another station
    F4 - Word Wrap/Single Line Alt-D -Disk Directory
    F5 - Send an ASCII text file Alt-E -Edit a data file
    F6 - Receive ASCII text file Alt-F -Find text in Flashback
    F7 - Send Binary File using pP Alt-G - Get Last message back again
    F8 - Recv Binary File using pP Alt- I -Initialise Comms Windows
    F9 - DOS Gateway Alt-J - adJust Morse Code speed
    F10 - Help with TNC Commands Alt-K - Exit KISS Mode
    Alt-F1 - Display Online Manual Alt-L - Continue Find in Flashback
    Alt-F3 - Call BBS for Mail Fwding Alt-M -Personal Message System
    Alt-F5 - Send RAW Binary file Alt-P - Turn Print log ON
    Alt-F6 - Recv RAW Binary file Alt-Q - Turn QUIET Mode ON
    Alt-F7 - Send File to BayCom Alt-R -Rename/Move data file
    Alt-F8 - Recv File from BayCom Alt-S - Script processing
    Scroll Lock - Pause Alt-T - Set TNC Time and date
    Page Up/Down - Flashback Alt-V -Verify Connected callsign
    U or U -Recall Type Ahead Alt-W - Write Flashback to disk
    Shift U or U - Flashback Alt-X - Exit this program
    Shift x or O -Change Comms Window Alt-Y - Yawn (half second delay)
    Shift -Change Comms Window Alt-Z -Configuration


    Display Online Manual -- <Alt-F1>
    
       Pressing this key will bring up paKet's Online Manual Window    
       which reveals the entire contents of the paKet Manual.
    
       The Manual is indexed and the index will appear for you to      
       select a topic. Move the highlight bar with the <Up-        
       Arrow>, <Down-Arrow>, , ,         
       <Home> or <End> keys to the desired topic, then 
       press <Enter> to select that topic.
    
       Once a particular topic is selected the full text for that      
       section of the Manual will be displayed and you may  scroll up  
       or down as desired.
    
       When you have finished with that section, press <Esc>   
       to return to the Index to select another topic. If you have     
       finished with the Online Manual, press <Esc> to return  
       to normal communications.
    
    TNC - Specific Help -- <F10>
    
       This feature will load the TNC Help file and will display a     
       window showing the available commands for your TNC.
    
       The TNC Help file that is displayed is the one specified in the 
       Configuration - Directories and Files Window.  Several TNC Help 
       Files are supplied with paKet so be sure to specify the file    
       best suited to your TNC.
    
       The TNC Help File Window will display a list of all the         
       commands for this TNC and this may be all you need to choose    
       the desired command. If so, press <Esc> to return to    
       normal communications.
    
       For more detail on any of these commands, highlight the desired 
       command and press <Enter>. When finished with this      
       Detail display press <Esc> to return to the main TNC    
       Help file list. Then select another item to display or press    
       <Esc> to return to normal communications.
    
       Further details of this display are available in the section on 
       "TNC Help Window".
    
    Exit the paKet Program -- <Alt-X>
    
       This command returns you to the operating system. Any files     
       that were open will be closed automatically.
    
       To guard against inadvertent exits, paKet will ask for your     
       confirmation that you really do want to exit.
    
       If you have specified any End-Auto Commands (Refer the          
       Configuration section for details) they will be sent to the TNC 
       and if paKet finds an AUTOEND.SCP file in the current directory 
       that Script will be executed before paKet returns to the        
       operating system.
    
       The <Alt-F4> key sequence achieves the same as <Alt-X>.
    

    Issuing Direct Commands to Your TNC
    
    The Command Mode -- <Ctrl-C>
    
       The two modes used the most by your TNC are the Command Mode    
       and the Converse Mode (there is another mode, the Kiss Mode     
       which is used less frequently).  The KPC-3 command mode prompt  
       is "cmd:".
    
       You must be in the Command Mode to issue commands to directly   
       to your TNC.  While you are connected to another ham, PMS or    
       PBBS you will enter into the Converse Mode.  When you are       
       disconnected, however, you should always be in the Command      
       Mode.  The paKet Program is pretty good at knowing which mode   
       you should be in at any time but you have the capability of     
       overriding it if necessary by using this <Ctrl-C>       
       command to enter into the Command Mode and by using the K       
       command to force the TNC into the Converse mode.
    
    The Converse Mode (from the Command Mode) -- K
    
       This is an immediate command to enter the converse mode from    
       the Command Mode.
    
       Link connections are not affected and a return to the Command   
       Mode can be made by typing in the Command Mode Entry character  
       (default <Ctrl-C>).
    
    Hardware Disconnect (from the Command Mode) -- D
    
       After returning the TNC to Command Mode; the "D" followed by    
       <Enter> issues a Disconnect command to the TNC.
    
       Using this command from a Personal Mailbox or a PBBS is         
       considered to be "rude" unless absolutely necessary, because of 
       the additional CPU overhead involved.  The "considerate" way to 
       disconnect from a Personal Mailbox or a PBBS is to use the B(ye 
       command.
    
       However, when you are connected "keyboard-to-keyboard" with     
       another Packet Radio operator, one of the two parties has to do 
       this in order to sever the connection.  Under these             
       circumstances a hardware disconnect is not only acceptable, but 
       necessary.
    

    Display Current KPC-3 Parameters (from the Command Mode) -- DISPLAY 
    
       From the Command Mode, typing "Disp" followed by                
       <Enter> will list all of the current individual TNC     
       parameter values to the screen.
    
    Some Important KPC-3 Commands (from the Command Mode)
    
       CMSg   PBBS   Send CTEXT on Connection
    
    	 Mode:   Packet
    
    	 Kantronics TNC Defaults:                                  
    	    KPC-3....................OFF
    
    	 Parameters:
    	     ON   - A CTEXT message is sent as first packet after  
    		    connect is made.
    	     OFF  - The CTEXT message is not sent.                 
    	     PBBS - The CTEXT message is sent and then the         
    		    connection will automatically be transferred to    
    		    your PBBS. This will occur if PBBS is available.
    
    	  The text of the message is contained in CTEXT which must 
    	  contain text (spaces only is not considered text) in     
    	  order for the DISC and PBBS function to operate.
    
    	  This function might be useful if you leave your system   
    	  running but are unavailable to answer the connect        
    	  request manually.
    
    	  It is recommended you leave CMSG ON and change the       
    	  contents of CTEXT to reflect the state of your system.   
    	  This is easily accomplished by specifying an appropriate 
    	  CTEXT message in both the Begin and End Auto commands.   
    	  (via the Configuration Window options).
    
       CText   text   blank   Message sent on Connection
    
    	For Example:     "Welcome to my packet station"
    
    	Mode:   Packet
    
    	Kantronics TNC Defaults:                                   
    	   KPC-3....................blank
    
    	Parameters:
    	   text - Any combination of characters and spaces (up to  
    	   a maximum of 128 characters).
    
    	Enter any combination of characters and spaces up to a     
    	maximum length of 128. Entering a single "%" will clear   
    	CTEXT. This entry specifies the text of the first packet   
    	to be sent in response to an accepted connect request      
    	provided that the parameter CMSG is not OFF.
    
       HElp   Display Help message
    
    	Mode:   All modes
    
    	Parameters:
    	   None. Immediate command
    
    	This command, when entered without any arguments, will     
    	display a list of all of the commands available in the     
    	KPC-3. If an optional command is given, a brief            
    	description of the stated command is displayed. 
    
    	    NOTE: If you give the HELP command using a Host mode   
    		  program, you may experience a VERY long delay    
    		  before the data appears on your screen.
    
       Monitor   ON|OFF   ON   Monitor other stations' packets
    
    	Mode:   Packet
    
    	Kantronics TNC Defaults:                                   
    	   KPC-3....................ON
    
    	Parameters:
    	   ON  - Monitoring of packet activity is enabled.         
    	   OFF - Monitoring of packet activity is disabled.
    
    	When ON, unconnected packets will be monitored unless      
    	prohibited by SUPLIST, BUDLIST, CONLIST, or LLIST. This    
    	will also allow monitoring of other packets if permitted   
    	by other monitor commands.
    
    	The MONITOR command acts as a master switch for the MALL,  
    	MCOM, MCON, MRESP, and MRPT commands.
    
    	The addresses in the packets are displayed along with the  
    	data portion of the packet.  Callsigns (to and from fields) 
    	are separated by a ">" and the callsign extension field    
    	(SSID) is displayed if it is other than 0.
    
    	All monitor functions are disabled in the Transparent      
    	Mode.
    
    	When OFF, you will monitor only those stations connected   
    	to you, no matter how other monitor commands are set. Any  
    	header information displayed will be determined by the     
    	settings of STREAMCA and STREAMEV.
    
       MYcall   call-n   nocall   Sets your callsign in the TNC
    
    	Mode:   Packet
    
    	Kantronics TNC Defaults:                                   
    	   KPC-3....................nocall
    
    	Parameters:
    	   call - Your call sign. You may also use a substation ID 
    	   (SSID) (0-15) if you wish.
    
    	Example:
    	   MYCALL KD6QOH       This tells the TNC my call sign.
    
    	When the TNC is first turned on out of the box, or after a 
    	hard reset, it asks you for your callsign - there is NO   
    	DEFAULT.  The callsign you enter is placed in this         
    	parameter.  The extension 'n' is called a Substation ID    
    	(SSID) and is defaulted as 0, but may be any number 0 to 15.
    
    	All packets originated by the TNC will contain this        
    	callsign in the FROM address field. Any packets received   
    	by the TNC with this callsign in the TO address field or   
    	digipeat field will be responded to appropriately          
    	(connect, disconnect, ack, digipeat, etc).
    
       MYPbbs   call-n  MYCALL-1 Sets Personal Packet Mailbox callsign>/A>
    
    	Mode:   PBBS
    
    	Kantronics TNC Defaults:                                   
    	   KPC-3......................MYCALL-1
    
    	Parameters:
    	   call - Your callsign (up to six characters plus an      
    	   SSID) which is different than that used for MYCALL,    
    	   MYALIAS, MYNODE, or MYGATE.
    
    	Enter up to six characters which will be used as the       
    	operating address for your Personal Packet MAilbox.
    
       PText   message   BLANK   Specifies text for PBBS sign-  
       on message
    
    	For Example:    "Welcome to my Mail Box"
    
    	Mode:   PBBS
    
    	Kantronics TNC Defaults:                                   
    	   KPC-3....................blank
    
    	Parameters:
    	   message - Up to 128 characters
    
    	This entry specifies the customized text sent with the     
    	initial PBBS (personal mailbox) sign-on message (when PBBS 
    	is connected to by a remote station).
    
    	Enter any combination of characters and spaces up to a     
    	maximum length of 128. Entering a single "%" will clear    
    	PTEXT. You should not have the ">" character in your   
    	PTEXT, as this is reserved by BBS systems for their        
    	prompt.
    
    	There are many other TNC-specific commands which can be    
    	changed from the Command Mode.  For a complete list use    
    	the <F10> key.
    

    paKet Program Basic Key Sequences
    
       Now that you have learned how to get help and how to escape     
       back to DOS at the end of a session, we will explore some of    
       the other paKet Program capabilities, taking them in the order  
       that they appear on the Display Help Screen .
    
       NOTE:   Not all of the commands will be addressed in this       
    	   course due to time constraints.
    
       Turn Log File On/Off -- <F2>
    
    	Pressing this key will switch the Log File on or off.
    
    	The Log File acts as an On/Off Toggle:
    
    	   - ON
    
    	      When the log file is ON, the Status Window will      
    	      display the name of the file currently used as a log 
    	      file and all Communications Window activity will be  
    	      written to that log file.
    
    	   - OFF
    
    	      The disk log facility is not currently active so     
    	      nothing is written to any log file.
    
        DOS Gateway -- <F9>
    
    	Pressing this key will provide access to DOS so you can    
    	run other DOS jobs without leaving paKet.  A Message       
    	Window will pop up asking you for a DOS command.
    
    	There are two ways to perform a DOS command:
    
    	   1.   You may enter the command into the message window  
    		beside the ">" prompt.
    
    		If you do this, the command will be executed (if   
    		possible) and you will be invited to "Press any    
    		key to continue" before paKet resumes where it     
    		left off.  The "Press any key to continue" message 
    		appears briefly over the DOS display to allow you  
    		time to peruse the result of the job and to read   
    		any messages, etc. that may have come from the DOS 
    		command.
    
    	   2.   Press <Enter> instead of entering a        
    		command, and the screen will be cleared before     
    		control is passed over to DOS and the familiar     
    		DOS Prompt.  When you have finished the DOS        
    		operations, type EXIT to return to paKet.  Do NOT  
    		type "PAKET" again as the system will attempt to   
    		load a second copy of paKet into memory!
    
       The Connect Window -- <Alt-C>
    
    	The Connect Window contains a list of names and connect    
    	paths for your regular contacts. This feature is provided  
    	to facilitate the connection process. You may record up to 
    	200 entries in the Connect Window.
    
    	At first the window will be blank but you may enter the    
    	details of your regular contacts to more easily establish  
    	contact with them next time.
    
    	To make a connection, move the highlight bar to the        
    	desired entry and press <Enter>.
    
    	To create a new entry, type in the left hand column a name 
    	that you can easily recognize, then press <TAB> to 
    	move to the start of the Callsign section.  Here you enter  
    	the details of the connect path you wish to use or Script  
    	file name, etc.
    
    	If you want to insert a new entry between two existing     
    	entries, move to the desired line and press <Ctrl-     
    	Ins>.  If you want to remove an existing entry, move   
    	to that entry and press <Ctrl-Del>.
    
    	Press <Esc> if you do not want to make a           
    	Connection at this time.  Any changes are saved            
    	automatically.
    
       Disk Directory Window -- <Alt-D>
    
    	This window will appear whenever you request a directory   
    	display (with the <Alt-D> key). It will also       
    	appear when paKet asks you to choose a file name (eg if    
    	you want to send a file to the other station).
    
    	The directory is displayed in alphabetical filename        
    	sequence with hidden and system files and the volume label 
    	displayed in a different shade.  Also shown are the file   
    	date/time and file attributes.
    
    	At the top of the window is the drive\path of the          
    	displayed directory, and on the bottom line is the amount  
    	of free space on that drive.
    
    	If there is another level of subdirectory below this one,  
    	that subdirectory name will be listed in sequence with     
    	"<DIR>" instead of a file size. In the example     
    	above, there is a subdirectory named "BIN" shown.          
    	Selecting that item will ask paKet to display that         
    	subdirectory in this Window.
    
    	You may scroll up and down this window using the <Up-  
    	Arrow> and <Down-Arrow>, the <PageUp>  
    	and <PageDown> keys, or the <Home> and     
    	<End> keys.  Or you can use paKet's hot-key typing 
    	by entering part or all of the file name - paKet will      
    	highlight the first filename that matches the characters   
    	you have typed so far.  Often all you need to type is one  
    	or two characters to move to the file you want.
    
    	If you hold the Shift key as you type, paKet will match    
    	only Sub Directory names.  For example, using the window   
    	shown above, if we type "P" the highlight bar moves to     
    	PAKET.ICO, the first file that begins with "P".  But if   
    	you hold the <Shift> key while typing "P", the     
    	highlight bar moves to PAKETDOC, the first Sub Directory   
    	name that begins with "P".
    
    	An item may be "selected" by moving the cursor (the        
    	highlight bar) to that item and pressing <Enter>.
    
    	Sometimes you might prefer to enter the file name yourself 
    	rather than go through a number of display options.  This  
    	is especially so if you want to create a file that does    
    	not yet exist on the disk (for example if you are using    
    	the System Editor to create a NEW text file). In this      
    	case, press <Home> to jump to the top line and     
    	select the option to "(Enter file name manually)" and      
    	paKet's Message Window will pop up for you to enter the    
    	file name.
    
    	You may display the directory of a different drive by      
    	selecting the "(Switch to another drive)" option second    
    	from the top of the window.  And you can select            
    	"<Previous directory>" to go back a level.
    
    	   (Hint:   type a "."  then <Enter> to quickly    
    		    move to the previous or parent directory when  
    		    searching the disk.)
    
    	If you used <Alt-D> to Display the directory,      
    	selecting a file will display the contents of that file.   
    	The command used to perform the display is configurable -  
    	refer to the "Configuration Windows - Directories  and  
    	Files" section for details.
    
    	If you press the <Delete> key, paKet will delete   
    	the highlighted file after asking for your confirmation    
    	that you really wish to perform the deletion.  This is     
    	convenient if you are doing some housekeeping such as      
    	cleaning out unwanted log files. You can use the System    
    	Editor to inspect log files on the disk and to edit out    
    	unwanted data.  Then delete any unwanted files.  All       
    	without leaving paKet.  You may delete a sub directory     
    	only if that sub directory is empty.
    
    	Alternatively, a file may be renamed or indeed moved from  
    	one directory to another by pressing <Alt-R> while 
    	that file is highlighted.  You are then asked to type the  
    	full new path and name for the file.  If a new  name is    
    	typed without a path, the file will remain in the current  
    	directory.  Note, DOS does not permit a file to be        
    	"moved" to another drive.  You will have to go to DOS and  
    	 COPY the file to get it on to another drive.
    
       Edit a Data File -- <Alt-E>
    
    	When you press <Alt-E>, paKet will display the     
    	Disk Directory Window so you can identify the file you     
    	wish to edit. Then it will load the nominated editor       
    	program.
    
    	When you have finished the edit and exit from that         
    	program, you will be returned to paKet where you left off.
    
       Find text in Flashback -- <Alt-F>
    
    	Pressing <Alt-F> will commence a search backward   
    	through the Flashback buffer, looking for a particular     
    	string of characters.
    
    	A Message Window will pop up asking you to enter the       
    	desired search string. You can enter this in either upper  
    	or lower case because the search is not case sensitive.
    
    	If found, the line containing the string is highlighted    
    	and paKet remains in Flashback mode.
    
    	Pressing <Alt-L> will continue the search, looking 
    	for an earlier occurrence of the same string.
    
       Get last message back again -- <Alt-G>
    
    	Sometimes a message disappears before you have had time to 
    	digest it or perhaps you thought you understood it but     
    	have forgotten some important detail ("what was that       
    	filename again"?)
    
    	You can increase the message duration in the Miscellaneous 
    	Configuration options, but it is possible you might want   
    	to take a little more time with just an occasional message.
    
    	This <Alt-G> command will re-display the last      
    	message displayed in the Message Window.  The re-displayed 
    	message will remain for the normal message duration but    
    	you can type <Alt-G> as many times as you like.
    
       Display Heard List -- <Alt-H>
    
    	This is an immediate command which displays the list of    
    	calls heard since last time the buffer was cleared         
    	(MHCLEAR or RESTART commands, or power-off).
    
    	Stations heard via a digipeater are marked with an         
    	asterisk (*).
    
    	The maximum number of stations monitored in the list is 18 
    	so that only the last 18 are displayed.  If PASSALL in ON   
    	logging of stations heard is disabled.
    
    	If date and time are set, entries will be time stamped.
    
       Initialize Communications Windows -- <Alt-I>
    
    	This option would not be used in normal circumstances but  
    	has been provided mainly to "fix" problems that were       
    	discovered while testing with a KAM TNC. Other Kantronics  
    	TNCs were not tested but it is likely the problems will    
    	occur with those models as well.
    
    	If you are using some other brand of TNC this command      
    	should not be required although it will not cause any      
    	problems.  It will simply clear any backlog in the other   
    	Communications Windows and reset the TNC to the Stream     
    	specified for the first Communications Window.
    
       Continue Find in Flashback -- <Alt-L>
    
    	Pressing <Alt-F> will commence a search backward   
    	through the Flashback buffer, looking for a particular     
    	string of characters.
    
    	A Message Window will pop up asking you to enter the       
    	desired search string. You can enter this in either upper  
    	or lower case because the search is not case sensitive.
    
    	If found, the line containing the string is highlighted    
    	and paKet remains in Flashback mode.
    
    	Pressing <Alt-L> will continue the search, looking 
    	for an earlier occurrence of the same string.
    
       Turn Print Log On/Off -- <Alt-P>
    
    	This is a toggle, meaning you press <Alt-P> to     
    	turn the Print Log ON and press it again to turn the Print 
    	Log OFF again.
    
    	While the Print Log is ON, a 'P' will be displayed in the  
    	Status Window to the left of the Windows display and all   
    	Communications data will be echoed to the printer on LPT1.
    
    	If the Print Log is OFF, no data will be sent to the       
    	Printer.
    
       Quiet Mode On/Off -- <Alt-Q>
    
    	When Quiet Mode is enabled, paKet will make NO sounds at   
    	all.  It doesn't matter where the sounds would normally    
    	come from, whether from a new Connection, or from an       
    	Alert, or from another station's <BEL> character,  
    	or whatever.  Quiet Mode will silence them all.
    
    	This might be convenient if you want to leave the system   
    	running at night and do not want to be disturbed by the    
    	various sounds that can emanate from this system.
    
    	This is a toggle switch, meaning you press <Alt-Q> 
    	to activate Quiet Mode and you press <Alt-Q> again 
    	to switch it off.
    
    	When Quiet Mode is active, a "Q" will be displayed to the  
    	left of the time in the Status Window.
    
       Set TNC Time and Date -- <Alt-T>
    
    	If for any reason, you need to reset your TNC, you can     
    	asily reset the date and time with this function.  paKet   
    	will generate a "DAY" command using the computer system's  
    	date and time as it does during initialization..
    
    	The format of the generated command includes the time in   
    	Hours, Minutes and Seconds. It has been brought to my      
    	notice that some TNCs cannot handle that format and will   
    	accept the time as Hours and Minutes only.  So, if you     
    	hold the <Ctrl> key while typing this <Alt-    
    	T> command (i.e. <Ctrl-Alt-T>), paKet will     
    	generate the DAY command without the seconds.
    
       Verify the TNC's Connected Status -- <Alt-V>
    
    	When a Connection is established with another station,     
    	paKet will try to determine the callsign of that station   
    	from the TNC's "Connected" message when it appears in the  
    	Communications Window.  paKet will then display that       
    	callsign in the Communication Window's Header line.
    
    	Some software packages operating in Host Mode or KISS Mode 
    	can interrogate the TNC to get this information, but these 
    	packages are usually more specific to certain TNCs.
    
    	paKet's method works well most of the time, but there are  
    	occasions where the callsign displayed is incorrect.  For  
    	example, if you reload paKet after a TNC connection has    
    	already been established, the newly loaded copy of paKet   
    	will not see a "Connected" message and so will think there 
    	is no connection!
    
    	This <Alt-V> command will issue a "C" (Connect)    
    	command to the TNC and will look at its reply to determine 
    	the connected status. A Message Window will pop up to      
    	advise you of the result and, if necessary, paKet will     
    	change the displayed callsign in the Communications Window 
    	Header.
    
       Write Flashback Buffer to Disk -- <Alt-W>
    
    	If you have received some information which you wanted to  
    	save and is still in the Flashback buffer, but did not     
    	have the disk Log File on at the time, you can select this 
    	option to write some or all of the Flashback buffer to     
    	disk.
    
    	A Message Window will pop up asking you to:
    
    	"Move to the start of the block and press <Enter>"
    
    	The program will automatically enter Flashback Mode        
    	allowing you to use the arrow keys, <PageUp>,      
    	<PageDown>, etc to move the highlight bar to the   
    	start of the block of data you want to write to disk.  If  
    	you want to capture the entire Flashback buffer, press     
    	<Ctrl-PageUp> to move to the start of the buffer.
    
    	Then press <Enter> to identify that as the first   
    	line to be captured.  Another message will pop up:
    
    	"Move to the end of the block and press <Enter>"
    
    	Using the same technique, move down to the last line you   
    	want to capture (<Ctrl-PageDown> to move quickly   
    	to the last line) and press <Enter> to mark that   
    	as the last line to be captured.  Note, the block of  data 
    	to be written will be highlighted as you move through the  
    	Flashback buffer.
    
    	Now that we know what is to be written to disk, paKet will 
    	ask you for the desired file name, via a Disk Directory    
    	Window.
    
    	When that data is written to the file, processing          
    	continues in normal conversation mode.
    
       Configuration -- <Alt-Z>
    
    	This option allows you to configure paKet's many options   
    	to set up an environment especially to suit yourself.
    
    	When you press <Alt-Z> the System Configuration    
    	Window will appear to show the major items that may be     
    	configured.  When you select one of those options          
    	additional Configuration Windows will appear to allow you  
    	to select the desired options.
    
    	Full details of all configurable options are shown and     
    	explained in the section on Configuration Windows in the   
    	paKet Online Manual -- <Alt-F1>.  If you are new   
    	to this, start with the "Configuration Windows -        
    	Overview" and work your way through all the options    
    	from there.
    
    	There is some additional help available with the Online    
    	Configuration.  When the System Configuration Window       
    	appears, another Window should appear below it offering    
    	some additional comments on the  Configuration Window      
    	currently being displayed.  This is called the             
    	Configuration Help and is optional.  If it is not being    
    	displayed, you can activate it by setting that option to Y 
    	in "Miscellaneous options".
    
    	To change that Configuration Help option, after pressing   
    	<Alt-Z> type 9 and you will see in the             
    	"Miscellaneous options" window an item in there     
    	that says "Display Configuration Help ?" and you    
    	can set that to Y or N. Set it to Y and you should now see 
    	the additional Help windows while you are using the Online 
    	Configuration.  You will need the file PAKETCFG.HLP in     
    	your default PAKET directory.
    
    Using Your TNCs Built-In Mailbox 
    
       Connecting to your TNCs Mailbox
    
    	You connect to your mailbox in the same way that a REMOTE  
    	user would, by using the SSID that you  assigned when you  
    	configured paKet.  The example we used then was KD6QOH-1.  
    	So if KD6QOH wants to connect to his mailbox, he simply    
    	connects to KD6QOH-1.  He will get a prompt such as this:
    
    	   ENTER COMMAND:  B,J,K,L,R,S, or Help >
    
    	The following is a BRIEF summary of the mailbox commands:
    
       The Mailbox Commands
    
            B   (Bye)     -   Exit Mailbox
    
            J   (Heard)   -   Callsigns Heard List
    
            K   (Kill)    -   Kill a message (eg K 3)
    
    	   A remote operator may Kill only a message sent BY that  
    	   station or addressed TO that station, but if you are    
    	   accessing your OWN mailbox, you have full authority to  
    	   delete any message.
    
    	   The messages are identified by number so the command    
    	   must include the message number that is to  be killed,  
    	   eg: K 5.
    
    	   Upon sucessful deletion of the message you will get a   
    	   response such as:
    
    	      Message 5 Killed
    
            L  (List)     -   List available messages
    
            R  (Read)     -   Read a message (eg R 3)
    
            S  (Send)     -   Send a message (eg S N6AHI)
    
    	   The Send command may be entered as "SP" or "S" (which   
    	   is the same thing) if entering a Personal message, or   
    	   "SB" to enter a Bulletin.
    
    	   Your mailbox needs to know who the message is being     
    	   "sent" to.  For a REMOTE user the callsign is optional; 
    	   if no callsign is entered, the assumption will be made  
    	   that the message is for you, the owner of the mailbox.
    
    	   Examples of a Send command:
    
    	      SP N6AHI   Personal message addressed to KD6QOH, may 
    			 be read by that station when he connects  
    			 to this mailbox.
    
    	      SB PAKET   Bulletin for this PMS only.  Anyone       
    			 accessing our mailbox can read this       
    			 message.
    
    	      S          A simple S (or SP) command is             
    			 permissible for a REMOTE user.  In this   
    			 case the message will be addressed to you 
    			 and stored here in your mailbox.
    
    	   When the mailbox is ready to take the message it will   
    	   prompt for the message header. Eg:
    
    	      Subject for msg 5 from KD6QOH to N6AHI?
    
    	   The "Subject" is the text that is shown in the mailbox  
    	   Listing so try to make it interesting and meaningful.   
    	   That could be the only part of your message some users  
    	   will see!
    
    	   Then, finally, the following prompt is issued:
    
    	      OK, send your message...(<Ctrl-Z> to end)
    
    	   Any text that is entered after this will be recorded in 
    	   the mailbox for this message.  A <Ctrl-Z>, or   
    	   "/EX" on a separate line, will terminate the message.   
    	   The mailbox then saves the message details and issues   
    	   the following confirmation that all is well:
    
    	      Message 5 stored
    
            Help   -   Display details of the Mailbox Menu
    
    	   Typing a "?" is the same as typing "Help". 
    


    SECTION IV -- The Full-Featured Packet Bulletin Board System (PBBS)
    

    The Packet Bulletin Board System Section Training Goals

    In this section, we will teach the student the ins and outs of the full-featured Packet Bulletin Board System (PBBS). What is a Full-Featured PBBS? Your local Full-Featured PBBS is the "hub" of your packet radio community. When we use the term PBBS in this section, we are referring to a Full-Service Packet Bulletin Board System (PBBS). A full-featured PBBS is a DEDICATED system. It is "open for business" twenty-four hours each day. It is like your local post office (except for the hours!) in that you can receive your mail there or you can send mail out from there to any place in the packet radio world. It is also like a bulletin board in that you can look at bulletins which originated locally, regionally or even from other countries. A PBBS is always in a state of transition. Messages and bulletins are passing into and out of the PBBS constantly. A PBBS can accomodate multiple users at the same time. The users can be coming into the PBBS from different ports, even from different bands. It is not unusual to have a PBBS configured so that it operates on UHF, VHF and HF simultaneously! Many PBBSs also have a telephone line attached to one or more of the ports so that a modem can be used to make a connection or forward traffic. Here is a sampling of how a PBBS might be used by a typical operator: Just got home from work. Let's find out what's new on N6AHI-3. Connect to N6AHI-3. Looks like I have personal mail from my friend K6TIB in Nipomo. Use the R)ead command to read my message. Use the Reply command to send a reply to K6TIB. Use the K)ill command to erase the original message, since I have already read it. Use the L)ist command to get a listing of the latest bulletins. Jot down the #'s of a few promising bulletins about the space shuttle or maybe a computer being offered for sale. Use the R)ead command to read the contents of the bulletins about the space shuttle and the computer. Exit the PBBS with the B)ye command. That was FUN!!


    PBBS Types
    
    	The type of PBBS depends on the software or program used.  
    	Your local PBBS SYSOP is constantly evaluating the various 
    	types of software available.  The SYSOP's primary concern  
    	is to bring you, the user, the best PBBS services          
    	possible.  Over the years, certain programs have come to   
    	be used most often.  When you first connect to a PBBS, you 
    	will see at the top of your screen an indication of which  
    	software is being used.  Although the commands available   
    	to the user will vary somewhat from system to system, the  
    	basic commands have become quite standardized.  Once you   
    	have learned how to use a specific PBBS type, such as      
    	MSYS, changing over to another type will be painless.
    
    	Examples of PBBS types are MSYS, F6FBB, W0RLI and AA4RE.
    
    Intro to MSYS
    
    	As a user, you will not need to have a copy of the MSYS    
    	Prorgram.  You will be using paKet or some other           
    	communications package to connect via your radio to the    
    	MSYS BBS.  For informational purposes, however, we include 
    	the following:
    
    	   MSYS v1.19 is written by Mike Pechura, WA8BXN, and is   
    	   Copyright 1993 by HUB COMPUTERS, INC.
    
    	When you first connect to an MSYS PBBS you will ultimately 
    	receive a prompt which looks like this:
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
    	In this prompt are the first letters of the available      
    	commands.  Everything you can do while you are connected   
    	to the PBBS is represented by these commands.
    
       Connecting to the PBBS, Registering, Getting Help and Exiting
    
    	It is our training philosophy that first and foremost a    
    	new PBBS user needs to learn how to register, get help     
    	when needed and how to leave the PBBS at the end of a      
    	session.  We believe that knowing how to do these things   
    	will enable you to be more relaxed and confident while you 
    	are learning the basic skills.  We are going to place      
    	these issues in a separate category to emphasize their     
    	importance and then we will move on to other subjects.
    
    
            Connecting to the PBBS
    
    	   Before you can connect to a PBBS, you need to know the  
    	   callsign or alias of the PBBS and you need to know what 
    	   frequency it is on.
    
    	   For training purposes, we will say that we want to      
    	   connect to the ALFBBS-1 (N6AHI-3) which resides locally 
    	   on 145.71 MHz.
    
    	   If you are using the paKet Program software you can use 
    	   your connect window <Alt-C> or you can type
    
    	   from the Command Mode:
    
    	      C N6AHI-3
    
    	   After you have successfully connected to the PBBS, you  
    	   will get the command prompt:
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
    	   If this is the first time you have connected to this    
    	   particular PBBS, chances are, you will be told that you 
    	   are an unknown user in that a question mark will appear 
    	   in place of you name.  That means that you need to      
    	   register.
    
            Registering on the PBBS 
    
    	   When you connect to a PBBS for the first time, you must 
    	   register.  The PBBS will want to know your name, your   
    	   QTH, your zip code and your home BBS.  In order to      
    	   register, you will use the following commands:
    
    	      N               Name <Enter>                 
    	      NH              Home BBS <Enter>             
    	      NZ              Home Zip <Enter>             
    	      NQ              City, State <Enter>
    
    	   As you can see, registering is done using the N         
    	   command.  For the purpose of this demonstration, let us 
    	   say that your name is Rusty, you live in Ventura, CA    
    	   and your zip code is 93003.  Let us also assume that    
    	   Rusty wants to have all mail addressed to him to go the 
    	   N6AHI-3 PBBS.  This is what Rusty must type in order to 
    	   register  properly:
    
    	      Your Name
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
    		 N Rusty <Enter>
    
    		 This is typically your first name only.
    
    	      Your QTH
    
    Enter command:A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
    		 NQ      Ventura, CA <Enter>
    
    		 This is usually your city followed by a comma and 
    		 then the proper two letter designation for your   
    		 state (in CAPs).
    
    	      Your Zip Code
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
    		 NZ      93003 <Enter>
    
    		 This is the five digit zip code for your home     
    		 QTH.
    
    	      Your Home BBS
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
    		 NH      N6AHI <Enter>
    
    		 This an area which is confusing to many users.    
    		 What you enter here can cause problems for your   
    		 PBBS SYSOP if you are not careful.  Your home BBS 
    		 is usually NOT your personal mailbox.  Let us say 
    		 that Rusty puts in his mailbox callsign here      
    		 (KD6QOH-1).  The PBBS will reject Rusty's mailbox 
    		 callsign because it is not a true PBBS.  Your     
    		 home BBS must be a Full-Featured PBBS.
    
    		 Your home BBS is usually your local PBBS          
    		 (remember --open 24 hours).
    
    		 Also, BE CONSISTANT WHEN YOU REGISTER YOUR HOME   
    		 BBS.  If you say that your home BBS is "N6AHI"    
    		 on one PBBS and say that it is "KM6RZ" on another 
    		 BBS, you are going to cause a lot of headaches    
    		 for the SYSOPs and the "white pages" will be      
    		 corrupted.  Make up your mind which PBBS to use   
    		 (usually the closest one is best) and use it all  
    		 the time whenever you register on other PBBSs.    
    		 Remember, you can register on as many PBBSs as   
    		 you like, but you can only have one home BBS.
    
    		 If you don't yet know which PBBS to use as your   
    		 home BBS, you can skip the NH command for now.    
    		 At some point, however, you will need to make     
    		 this decision in order to receive mail.
    
    		 Arrangements CAN be made to forward your mail to  
    		 your own personal mailbox if you are willing to   
    		 make the commitment to leave your radio and TNC   
    		 on at all times.  You must talk to the SYSOP of   
    		 your local PBBS to make these arrangements.
    
    		 Note that the PBBS command prompt precedes each   
    		 of the commands:
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
    		 You must ALWAYS wait for the prompt before you    
    		 type in ANY PBBS command.  If the PBBS is busy,   
    		 it may take a while for the prompt to appear.     
    		 One of the biggest problems for new users is      
    		 learning patience.  They may think that they have 
    		 done something wrong when they type in a command  
    		 and nothing happens.  Remember that packet radio  
    		 is a networking operation; packets from many      
    		 users can be flying back and forth on the same    
    		 frequency.  If you are experiencing long delays,  
    		 try again later.
    
            Getting Help on the PBBS
    
    	   Let us say that we have sucessfully connected to and    
    	   registered at the N6AHI-3 PBBS.  Now we want to explore 
    	   the H)elp command.
    
    	   There are two ways to get help in the PBBS.  The H      
    	   command will get you a generalized summary of the       
    	   basic commands.  From the command prompt:
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
    	      H <Enter>
    
    	   You will see something like this:
    
    B - Bye        C - Conference      D - Download        G - File search 
    H - Help       I - Information     J - Calls heard     K - Kill message
    L - List Msgs  M - Msg of the day  N - Enter name/qth  P - Path to call 
    R - Read Msgs  S - Send Message    T - Talk to SYSOP   U - Current users 
    V - BBS Ver.   W - List Files dir  X - Set options     UP -UPLOAD TEXT   
    * - Comment    ?x - Info abt cmd   x REQXXX -serv.     Y - YAPP func.
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
    	   This gives us an idea of what each command means in     
    	   generalized terms.  What if we wanted to know more      
    	   about a specific command, let's say the L)ist command?
    
    	   If we wanted to know more about the L)ist command, we   
    	   would type:
    
    	      ?L <Enter>
    
    	   What you would see on your screen would be a DETAILED   
    	   listing of all the possible L)ist command  variations.
    
    	   NOTES:  Most MSYS SYSOPS provide their users with a     
    		   file called USERMAN.ZIP which is a comprehensive 
    		   listing of MSYS commands.  You can leave a message 
    		   to your SYSOP for instructions on how to "download" 
    		   the USERMAN.ZIP file.
    
            Exiting the PBBS
    
    	   You should use the B)ye command to exit the PBBS        
    	   whenever possible.  The B)ye command exits the PBBS in  
    	   an orderly fashion with the minimum amount of CPU time  
    	   involved.  Here is an example of how to use the B)ye    
    	   command:
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
    	      B <enter>
    

    The L)ist / R)ead / K)ill Cycle
    
    When you recieve messages from other Packet Radio friends on your
    home PBBS you will find that there is a cycle of commands that you
    will use over and over again to process their messages.
    
    First you will be informed by the PBBS that you have received
    messages.  You will then list the messages, read the messages and
    then you will kill the messages after you have read them.  We will
    call this process the L)ist, R)ead and K)ill cycle.
    
    We will show you the basic ways in which these commands work at
    the simplest level now, and then later we will "revisit" them in
    order to aquaint you with the details of how they can be used.
    
       L)ist
    
       If you have messages waiting when you connect to your home BBS, 
       there will usually be an indication, like "YOU HAVE MESSAGES    
       WAITING"
    
       At the PBBS command prompt:
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
          LU <Enter>
    
    	 to get a listing of the "unread" messages waiting for you to read. 
    
       R)ead 
    
       At the PBBS command prompt:
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
          RM <Enter>
    
    	 The RM (Read Mine) command will list your messages to the 
    	 screen, even if there is more than one message.
    
       K)ill
    
       At the PBBS command prompt:
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
          KM <Enter>
    
    	 Once you have read your messages (and saved them to a log 
    	 file using the paKet <F2> command) you should     
    	 erase the message from the PBBS database.  You can either 
    	 use K # (where # is the message number of the message you 
    	 wish to Kill) or KM, which will kill all messages sent to 
    	 you.
    

    MSYS Commands
    
    Now that we have learned to connect to a PBBS, register, get help,
    exit and the L)ist, R)ead and K)ill cycle,  we will learn about
    some of the other commands.
    
    The I)nfo Command -- Basic information about the node
    
    This command will give the user some basic information about the
    PBBS node.  The structure of the I)nfo command reply is left
    completely to the SYSOP and is basically a free-form ASCII segment
    with no limitations as to structure or format.  As a user, you can
    get information about what kind of computer is being used, which
    TNCs and the port configurations.  Whenever you check in to a PBBS
    for the first time, it is recommended that you check out the I)nfo
    command.
    
    At the PBBS command prompt:
    
    Enter command: A,B,C,D,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,P,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,?,* >
    
       I <Enter>
    
    The J)ust Heard Command
    
    This gives information about stations that the PBBS has heard.  If
    the call is a funny alias, the sponsor's call is given inside the
    curly brackets. If you want to connect to someone like that, don't
    use the sponsor's call  use the alias.  Use the Path command to
    determine how stations were connected to the  PBBS.  You can  also
    limit the output with a channel number, like this: JK 0 ... this
    lists all KA nodes heard on port 0.
    
       JB -- BBSs
       JD -- Digipeaters
       JG -- Gateways
       JK -- KA nodes
       JM -- Other MSYS PBBSs
       JN -- NET/ROM nodes
       JT -- TCP/IP protocol stations
    
    
    The L)ist Command (Revisited)
    
    List is used to give you the headers of the messages.  Used alone,
    it will list all messages since you last logged off with the B)ye
    command.  The PBBS has a function to force all personal messages
    to end up as private messages.  If this is on, any message sent
    except bulletins are changed to private:
    
       L ----------            List since last logged off with B.      
       L catagory -            List for a single catagory.             
       LC ---------            List categories (TO fields).            
       LM ---------            List mine, messages addressed to you.   
       LN ---------            Lists messages not yet read to you.     
    			   Include NTS type traffic messages.
       LT ---------            Lists NTS traffic messages.             
       LL ---------            List the last message entered.          
       LL # -------            Last # messages.                        
       LO yymmdd --            List OLDER than yymmdd.                 
       LU ---------            Lists unread messages to you.           
       LY ---------            Lists messages that have been read      
       LW ---------            Lists weather messages (type W$).       
       L< call ----            Lists messages from call (or alias).    
       L> call ----            Lists messages to call (or alias).      
       L@ call ----            Lists messages with call as an @BBS.    
       L x --------            Lists messages since a given number.    
    			   To see them all, use L 0 (there will
    			   likely be HUNDREDS of them!).
       L x y ------            List numbers between numbers x and y.   
       L"string" --            Lists messages with the character       
    			   string you specify in the title.  The   
    			   quote marks are required.  This is case 
    			   insensitive, "Yaesu" will match         
    			   "YAESU", "yaesu", etc.
       L'string' --            Lists messages with the character       
    			   string you specify in the title.  The   
    			   single quote marks are required.  This  
    			   is case sensitive, "Yaesu" will not     
    			   match.
    
    The R)ead Command (Revisited)
    
    This is used to read messages on the board.  Many messages may be
    strung together.  Wildcards are supported: 
    
       R@ call -       Read messages having a certain @BBS.
       R> xxxx -       Read messages to xxxx TO field.
       R< xxxx -       Read messages from xxxx in FROM field.
       R cat ---       Reads all messages in catagory.
       RE ------       The read for export.  This reads the message in 
    		   a format where it can then be easily uploaded   
    		   into a PBBS or mail drop.
       RH ------       The read with headers.  This shows the          
    		   forwarding headers that are added at each PBBS  
    		   as the message is sent.  The routes are not the 
    		   same at all times and it can be fun to see how  
    		   a message got from tither to yon.  If a message 
    		   author did not give the home PBBS for a return  
    		   reply, use this to determine where the message  
    		   originated.  Normally, that PBBS can be tried   
    		   for a response.
       RN ------       This reads only the text of the message and is  
    		   a good way to save time on a marginal path.
       RM ------       Reads unread messages addressed to you.         
       RP ------       Reads a message without marking it as having    
    		   been read so it will be listed the next time    
    		   you check in.
    
    S)end Command
    
    This is used to send a message.  The basic format is Sx call
    @PBBS.  Sx is a send with the type of message it is.  The @PBBS is
    the location where the addressee picks up their mail.  Call is the
    exact callsign of the recipient.  If you  make a mistake on the
    addressee's call, the message will probably end up in limbo, never 
    to be received.
    
    <control-A> -- Aborts the message; to start over.
    
       CC  callsign -- This causes a copy of a message to be sent to   
    		   the calls following the carbon copy command.    
    		   The CALLSIGN can take the form:
    
    		      CALLSIGN1@PBBS;CALLSIGN2@PBBS
    
    		   to send the same message to many users.
    
       REPLY  #  --    Allows the PBBS to automatically address a      
    		   message replying to another message.  If you    
    		   add a period after the message number, like     
    		   this, "REPLY #.", the PBBS will also            
    		   automatically enter a title for you.
    
       SP ---------    A personal  message listed or read by the       
    		   addressee and author.
    
       SR # -------    Allows the PBBS to automatically address a      
    		   message replying to another message.  If you    
    		   add a period after the message number, like     
    		   this:  "REPLY  #.", the PBBS will also          
    		   automatically enter a title for you.
    
       ST  -------     NTS Traffic.  Most boards have a help file.     
    		   READ IT!
    
       SB  -------     Send a bulletin.  Without an @PBBS, these will  
    		   stay on your PBBS and may be addressed in       
    		   whatever way you wish.
    
    The K)ill Command (Revisited)
    
    This deletes messages.  You may kill a number of messages at the
    same time:  K 2 34 556.
    
       KM -- Kills messages addressed to you.                          
       KT -- Kills NTS traffic you are going to deliver.
    
    The G)rep Command
    
    This command searches a file for a given set of characters.  First
    just enter a G.  The board will ask for a filename.  It is asking
    for something in the download section, that you get with the What
    command.  It will then ask you for the string you want to find. 
    Let's say you want to search NCBYLAWS.DOC for the string "election":
    
       G <Enter> NCBYLAWS.DOC <Enter> election <Enter>.
    
    The board will then send you all lines that have "election" in  
    them.  The command does not recognize  wildcards (*/?).  If you do
    not specify a file, the default of DATABASE.0 will be used.
    
    Flood Designators A "flood designator" is a way to direct your bulletin to a specific group of packet radio users. For example, if you wanted to advertise a computer or TNC for sale to ONLY California packet users, you would address it like this: SB SALE @ ALLCA If you wanted to send a bulletin to all packet radio users who are interested in Amateur Radio Satellite Communications in the United States of America you would address it to: SB AMSAT @ ALLUS We have a group of "flood designators" which we use here in Ventura County, and they are listed below: ALLCV Conejo Valley, but generally gets to all Ventura County BBSes VCARES Ventura County ARES distribution; goes to all Ventura County BBSes. VCNET All Ventura County BBSes. (Use this for Non-ARES bulletins.) SCA Southern California ECA Eastern California CCA Central California WCCA West Central California NCA Northern California WCA Western California CA All California ALLSWD All Southwest Division (Arizona & California) ALLUSW All US West (Arizona, Nevada, California & other states sometimes) USA All US WW World Wide
    Digipeaters and Nodes What is a Digipeater? Digipeater is the term we use to describe a packet radio digital repeater. Unlike the FM voice repeaters, most digipeaters operate on simplex and do not receive and transmit simultaneously. They receive the digital information, temporarily store it and then turn around and retransmit it. Your TNC will allow you to enter up to eight digipeaters in your connect sequence, but using more than 3 usually means long waits, lots of repeated packets, and frequent disconnects, due to noise and other signals encountered on the frequency. When entering the list of digipeaters in your connect sequence, you must make sure that you enter them in the exact order that your signal will use them. You must separate the calls by commas, without any spaces, and the EXACT callsigns must be used, including the SSID, if any. That means you need to know what digipeaters are out there before you begin randomly trying to connect to someone. Turn MONITOR ON and watch for the paths that other stations are using. Here are some examples of proper connect sequences: C W6PW-3 v W6PW-1 C N6ZYX v WA6FSP-1,WB6LPZ-1 C W6ABY-4 v K6MYX,N2WLP-2,AB6XO The "v" means via. In the first example the sequence shown means: Connect to W6PW-3 via W6PW-1. Something to remember when using digipeaters is the difference between making a connection and sending information packets. If the path isn't all that good, you might be able to get a connect request through, but will have a difficult time with packets after that. The connect request is short so it has much less of a chance of being destroyed by noise or collisions than a packet containing information. Keeping information packets short can help keep retries down when the path is less than ideal. What is a Node? A node is basically a relay device that helps to connect to another station that is not in your local area. This removes the need for high-powered radios and large antennas. There are two basic types of node. One type, and the most used, is the Net or Network node. The other type is called K-node or Ka-node (Kantronics). Net node The Net node is different from the K-Node in that the node listens to the frequency and logs what it hears. If it hears another node, it logs that node as a "route", a node that it can directly connect to. It also logs the nodes that route can hear. It compares the other nodes with what is in its log and figures out the best path to a destination. Net nodes only talk to other Net nodes, Net/Rom nodes, TheNet nodes and other versions of the network nodes. They will typically have a callsign with SSID and an alias. First, you need to determine what nodes are located close to you. You can do this by monitoring and watching for an ID or by watching to see what other stations in your area are using. You'll note that most nodes have an alias ID in addition to its callsign. Once you determine the callsign or alias of a local node, you connect to it the same way as you connect to any other packet station. You may use either the callsign or the alias to make the connection. When you connect to a node, your TNC automatically switches to converse mode, just like when you connect to any packet station. Not all network nodes will provide the user with a prompt. If you think you are connected to a network node, but would like to verify your connection, just type "?" <Enter> and the node will send you a list of the possible commands. Anything you now type is sent to the node as a packet, and the node acknowledges each packet back to your TNC. For the remainder of your connection your TNC works only with this one node. When you're connected to a node enter "N" <Enter> and you'll receive a list of other nodes that you can reach on the network from the node you're using. You'll note that the node list will vary in length and in the calls listed as you move from frequency to frequency, since all frequencies are not linked together. The list gives both an alias ID and a callsign for each node. The alias ID often gives you a hint as to where the node is located, but not always. To find out for sure where a node is located you'll need to get a copy of the descriptive node listings that are available on most packet bulletin board systems. These complete lists give the alias, callsign, location, frequency and other information on each node in the network. To connect to a station in another area using the node network you first must determine which node is closest to the station you want to work. For demonstration purposes, let's say we want to connect to N6AHI-3. He's told you he uses the ALFNET node, so you check the node list and see that ALFNET:N6AHI-6 is listed. WHILE STILL CONNECTED TO YOUR LOCAL NODE you first connect to the distant node by sending a normal connect request, in this case "C ALFNET" or N6AHI-6. Your TNC will send this as a packet to your local node and your local node will acknowledge it. The network will then go to work for you and find the best path between your local node and the one you're trying to reach. You might have to be a little patient here, as it sometimes takes a few minutes for the connection to be completed. You'll then see one of two responses: "Connected to ALFNET" OR "Failure with ALFNET". If it can't connect for some reason, try again later. It could be that ALFNET is temporarily off the air or the path has decayed and is no longer available. We're going to be positive here and say we received the first option. The K-node To use the node to connect to another local station, you connect to the node in the same way you do for the net node. Your TNC will go into the converse mode as with the net node. You simply enter a connect request as though you were connecting direct from your TNC, such as "C N6AHI-3". You do this, however, while you ARE STILL CONNECTED TO THE NODE. The node will then retransmit your connect request and you'll receive one of two responses: "Connected to (callsign)" or "Failure with (callsign)". Once you're connected you hold your QSO just as if you had connected direct or via a digipeater. When you're finished, go to Command Mode on your TNC <Ctrl-C> and then type "D" <Enter> and you will be disconnected from the node and the station you were working. When you're finished with the QSO, you disconnect in the normal manner -- If necessary, you may have to go to Command Mode on your TNC and enter "D" <Enter>. The entire path will then disconnect automatically for you.


    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    APPENDIX A --- MSDOS 6.22 Help Summary Sheet
    ANSI.SYS                 EMM386.EXE               Multi-config
    Append                   Erase                    Nlsfunc
    Attrib                   Exit                     Numlock
    Batch commands           Expand                   Path
    Break                    Fasthelp                 Pause
    Buffers                  Fastopen                 Power
    Call                     Fc                       POWER.EXE
    Cd                       Fcbs                     Print
    Chcp                     Fdisk                    Prompt
    Chdir                    Files                    Qbasic
    Chkdsk                   Find                     RAMDRIVE.SYS
    CHKSTATE.SYS             For                      Rd
    Choice                   Format                   Rem
    Cls                      Goto                     Ren
    Command                  Graphics                 Rename
    CONFIG.SYS commands      Help                     Replace
    Copy                     HIMEM.SYS                Restore
    Country                  If                       Rmdir
    Ctty                     Include                  ScanDisk
    Date                     Install                  Set
    Dblspace                 Interlnk                 Setver
    Debug                    INTERLNK.EXE             SETVER.EXE
    Defrag                   International commands   Share
    Del                      Intersvr                 Shell
    Deltree                  Keyb                     Shift
    Device                   Label                    SIZER.EXE
    Device drivers           Lastdrive                Smartdrv
    Devicehigh               Lh                       SMARTDRV.EXE
    Dir                      Loadfix                  Sort
    Diskcomp                 Loadhigh                 Stacks
    Diskcopy                 Md                       Submenu
    DISPLAY.SYS              Mem                      Subst
    Dos                      Memmaker                 Switches
    Doskey                   MenuColor                Sys
    Dosshell                 MenuDefault              Time
    DRIVER.SYS               MenuItem                 Tree
    Drivparm                 Mkdir                    Type
    Drvspace                 Mode Commands            Undelete
    Drvspace Tips            More                     Unformat
    DRVSPACE.SYS             Move                     Ver
    Echo                     Msav                     Verify
    Edit                     Msbackup                 Vol
    EGA.SYS                  Mscdex                   VSafe
    Emm386                   Msd                      Xcopy
    


    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    APPENDIX B --- paKet 6.1 Hot Keys Summary Sheet

    PAKET VERSION 6.1 HELP
    F1 - Access HELP Screen ALT-A Use Morse code for Alerts
    F2 - Turn Log File ON/OFF ALT-B Send BREAK signal to TNC
    F3 - Turn REMOTE mode ON/OFF ALT-C CONNECT to another station
    F4 - Word Wrap / Single Line ALT-D Access Disk Directory
    F5 - Send an ASCII text file ALT-E Access system EDITOR
    F6 - Receive an ASCII text file ALT-F Find text in Flashback
    F7 - Send a BINARY File using PP ALT-G Get last message back again
    F8 - Receive a BINARY File using PP ALT-I Initialize Comm Windows
    F9 - Access DOS Gateway ALT-J Adjust Morse Code Speed
    F10- Help with TNC Commands ALT-K Exit KISS Mode
    ALT-F1 Display Paket 6.1 Manual ALT-L Continue FIND in Flashback
    ALT-F2 << NO ACTION>> ALT-M Access Personal MSG System
    ALT-F3 Call BBS For Mail Forwarding ALT-P Turn ON/OFF PRINTER Log
    ALT-F4 EXIT Screen ALT-Q Turn ON/OFF QUIET Mode
    ALT-F5 Send RAW Binary File ALT-R Register Program Screen
    ALT-F6 Receive RAW Binary File ALT-S Script Processing
    ALT-F7 Send File TO BAYCOM ALT-T Set TNC Time and Date
    ALT-F8 Receive File From BAYCOM ALT-V Verify Connnected CALLSIGN
    CNT-ALT-E Clear Receive Screen ALT-W Write FLASHBACK to Disk File
    CNT-ALT-EE Clear Receive Buffer ALT-X EXIT This Program
    CNT-ALT-M Shows Memory Available
    CNT-ALT-F9 ON/OFF CW TX/RX Mode

    Scroll Lock - To Pause Screen paKet Ver 6.0-6.1
    UP OR DN ARROW - Scroll Up or Down Thru Flashback Keyboard Cmds.
    PG-UP / PG-DN - Page UP/DN Thru Flashback
    SHIFT UP/DN ARROW- Recall Type Ahead Buffer Prepared By:
    SHIFT LFT/RT ARROW- Page Thru Comm Windows WA3JML
    SHIFT <Fn> - Change Comm Window


    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    APPENDIX C --- MSYS PBBS Command Summary Sheet
    Abort.......... Stop current action     PC.............  Request a callsign
    Bye............ Disconnect              Read...........  Read a message
    Conference..... Multi-user\DX Node         R x ......       Read all catagory x
       ^ZH.......      Conference help         R@ xxxx...       Read all at xxxx BBS
       ^ZQ.......      Return to PBBS          R> xxxx...       Read all to xxxx
       ^ZU.......      List users              R< xxxx...       Read all from xxxx
       ^ZA #.....      Invite user on #        RM........       Read Mine
    Download....... Download from FILES        RE........       Read for export
    Grep........... String search file         RH........       Read with headers 
    Help........... Help                       RN........       Read only text
    Information.... BBS hardware               RP........       W/O mark as read
    ID............. Port definitions        Send...........  Send a message
    Just Heard..... Log                        ^A.........      Abort message
       JB........      BBS Stations            CC.........      Carbon copy
       J.........      Digipeaters             REPly #....      Reply auto title
       J.........      Gateways                SP.........      Send personal
       JK........      K and KA nodes          ST.........      Send traffic
       JM........      MSYS PBBSs              SB.........      Send bulletin
       JN........      Net/Rom              Talk...........  Page sysop
       JT........      TCP/IP protocol      Users..........  Users
    Kill........... Kill a message          Version........  Version
       KM........      Kill mine            What...........  Download list
       KT........      Kill traffic            W x.......       What in x=subdir
    List........... Message headers         eXpert.........  Toggle expert
       L x.......      List catagory x         X #.......       Lines per page
       LC........      List catagories         XC........       Toggle catagory
       LM........      List mine               XF........       Multiple lines
       LN........      List not read           XR........       Toggle reply   
       LT........      List traffic            XS........       1 line per reply 
       LL........      List last message    Yapp...........  Down and uploads
       LL #......      List last #             YW........       YAPP Directory
       LO #......      List older #=yymmdd     YD........       Download a file
       LU........      List unread to you      YU........       Upload a file
       LY........      List read to you     * .............  Comment to sysop
       LW........      List weather
       L?........      List ? forward       NETWORK NODE COMMANDS
       L<< x.....      List fm x=callsign   BBS............  Connect to the PBBS
       L>> x.....      List to x=callsign   Bye............  Disconnect
       L@ PBBS...      Messages to PBBS     Connect CALL     Connect to call
       L #.......      List since #            C#               CALL on port # to call
       LL #......      List last #          Help...........  Help
       L # #.....      List from # to #     Info...........  Basic Information
       L"x"......      List with x=string   Justheard...     Limited output JH
       L'x'......      List with x=sTrInG      K-Nodes....      K-Node output
       L$........      List bulletins       Nodes........    Nodes heard Message
    Message........ Message of the day         Nodes CALL..     Info on node
    Name........... First name              Ports..........  Port information
       NH........      Home board           Routes.........  Direct connect nodes
       NQ........      QTH=City, State         Route CALL       Other node
       NZ........      Zip code             Talk...........  Page Sysop
    Path........... Path to a user          Users.........   Users/nodes
       PF........      Path to a PBBS                        
    


    
    
    
    
    
    
    APPENDIX D --- Ventura Local Packet Frequencies
    The following is a list of the local packet systems and their
    frequencies...
    

    Call Alias Location Type System Used Used of Coverage Frequency Notes (BBS,Node,DX Clusters)

    WB2YXY-3 SMIVLY Simi Valley 145.??? BBS WA6ZSN-1 VNTURA South Mountain 145.030 NETWORK NODE WA6ZSN-3 OJAI Red Mountain 145.030 NETWORK NODE N6AHI-7 VTALAN Ventura, Ca. 145.710 NETWORK NODE W6KGB Oxnard, CA. BBS ======================================================================= Notes: Those stations that are listed as a BBS are full service bbs' that handle all types of messages via the international bbs forwarding circuits. 1. These are network nodes that are part of the main bbs software. 2. Same as note 1 except that the software is emulating the Kantronics Ka-node style of operation. 3. Temporarily out of service. $. A donation may be requested or required. Prepared by Rick N6AHI @ N6AHI.#SCA.CA.USA.NOAM



    AREA 6 Packet Radio Training Course

    Developed by the Ventura County ARES AREA 6 Training Group
    Technical content and HTML Version Last Revised
    Wednesday, October 27th, 1999 by K6NE

    Please respond with questions, answers, comments, etc. to:

    Joe Krigbaum (K6NE) Joe's EMail Address:
    PACKET: k6ne@k6ne 145.650 MHz
    APRS: k6ne 144.390 MHz

    This page has been accessed more than times since Jan. 1, 2002.