Russia

Signs a

Peace Treaty

With

Great Britain

Pact Signed After Napoleon's Invasion of Russia of 1812

Our Will and Pleasure I, that you forthwith cause the Great Seal of Great Britain to be affixed to an Instrument bearing date with these Presents (a Copy whereof is hereunto annexed) containing Our Ratification in the Name and on the Behalf of His Majesty, of a Treaty of Peace, Union, and Friendship, between His Majesty and His Good Brother The Emperor of all the Russian, concluded and signed at Örebro on the Eighteenth Day of July last, by their respective Plenipotentiaries duly authorized for that purpose. And for so doing this shall be Your Warrant …

To all and singular to whom these Presents shall come Greeting! Whereas a Treaty of Peace, Union, and Friendship, between His Majesty and His Good Brother Alexander The First, Emperor and Sole Monarch of all the Russias, was signed at Örebro on the Eighteenth Day of July One Thousand Eight Hundred and Twelve, New Stile, by the Plenipotentiaries of His Majesty and His said Good Brother, duly and respectively authorized for that purpose, which Treaty is, word for word,

as follows ...

An important historical document, ratifying the alliance between two countries that were to bring about the fall of Napoleon.

By the Treaty of Tilsit, signed on a raft in the River Niemen on 8 July 1807, Alexander I had allied himself to Napoleon and, by a secret clause in the treaty, agreed to join the Continental System should Britain reject Russian mediation for peace.

Commercial expediency made Russia abandon the Continental System on 31 December 1810. The final break with Napoleon came on 24 June 1812 when the Grand Armée of over half a million men crossed the River Nieman into Russia (taking eight days to march over three pontoon bridges).

On 17 August Smolensk was burnt by the Russians. On 7 September the French achieved their expensive victory at Borodino. Napoleon entered Moscow on 15 September. That night the first fires were lit by the Russians. The first units of the Grand Armée began their retreat from Moscow at two o'clock in the afternoon of Monday, 19 October 1812.