GREEN LACEWING TECHNICAL BULLETIN RINCON-VITOVA INSECTARIES, INC. SUPPLIERS OF BENEFICIAL INSECTS SINCE 1960 P. O. BOX 95, OAK VIEW, CA. 93022 (805) 643-5407 FAX 805-643-6267 OUTSIDE CA 800-248-2847 Outline (need 2700 words total) BENEFITS OF BIOCONTROL Biological control with beneficial insects makes dollars and sense, even in chemically sprayed fields. Growers using Rincon-Vitova's green lacewings and other beneficials (all natural, none genetically engineered) to augment indigenous natural enemies can expect to improve profits by reducing or eliminating pesticide use. Residue problems, costs of sprays, scheduling sprays around irrigations and when workers are not present, health and safety liability risks, even insurance costs, may be reduced when beneficial insects assume more pest management chores. In many cases, crop yield and quality improve as previously unrecognized adverse pesticide effects on plant physiology disappear. Resistance problems, and outbreaks of secondary pests like spider mites, whiteflies and leafminers are avoided. There are also public relations and marketing benefits from using this "green", environmentally-friendly alternative to conventional chemical control. NATURE'S BEST ALL-AROUND PREDATORS Green lacewings are "proven broad-spectrum biological control agents," says Donald Norlund of the USDA-ARS in Weslaco, Texas. Very few pest species escape hungry green lacewings. Green lacewings devour eggs and young larvae of Colorado potato beetles, most caterpillars (worms), corn borers, aphids, spider mites, scales, psylla, mealybugs, whiteflies, thrips, leafhoppers etc. It takes a very hard shell or thick waxy coating to deter green lacewing feeding. Adult green lacewings have beautifully delicate light green bodies, sparkling golden eyes and diaphanous lacy wings. Adults depend upon pollen, nectar and insect honeydew for sustenance. Eggs are protectively layed on the tips of stalks resembling miniature cattails growing from plant foliage. Adult lacewings live longer and lay more eggs (which hatch into voracious larvae in less than a week) when supplied plant pollens. Mottled, grayish-brown, alligator-shaped lacewing larvae (3/8 inch long before pupating) actively search for, seize in their pincers and suck the juices out of small caterpillars (e.g. armyworms, budworms, bollworms, corn earworms, cabbage loopers, codling moth etc.), flea beetles (e.g. on cruciferous oil seed crops) and a wide range of small soft-bodied sucking pests like aphids, spider mites, thrips, psyllids, mealybugs, scales and whiteflies. During its 2-3 week life, one lone lacewing larva can consume 250 leafhopper nymphs (4th-5th instar on grapes), 300-400 aphids, 11,200 spider mites, 3,780 coccid scales or 6,500 scale eggs (on pine trees). Lacewings work well on tree, vine, field and row crops, as well as in greenhouses and on interior plantscapes. DIFFERENT SPECIES AVAILABLE Rincon-Vitova Insectaries, Inc., raises several species in the green lacewing natural enemy complex (1200 species are known worldwide), including Chrysoperla carnea, Chrysoperla comanche and Chrysoperla rufilabris. Unless there are indications for using one species, growers, gardeners and researchers value the genetic diversity of our mixture. A mixture of species insures colonization of diverse habitats (e.g. ground covers, trees, shrubs). Rincon-Vitova's staff will be happy to advise callers on the best species or species mixture for their particular situation. CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA Chrysoperla carnea is the old standby, a workhorse predator that has helped librate many farms from the pesticide treadmill. Bred from stock collected in heavily sprayed southern California valleys, Rincon-Vitova's C. carnea are ideal for farms making the transition from pesticides to biological control. Researchers report that C. carnea is resistant to multiple pesticides. Rincon-Vitova does not test for pesticide resistance or make specific claims, but growers and consultants are welcome to order sample batches and do their own testing for compatibility with compounds used in their IPM programs. Chrysoperla carnea is a broad habitat species found from lowlands to high mountains. Thus, C. carnea is recommended for all field crops, trees, vines and gardens. C. carnea does well at low humidities (higher egg laying and survival), in contrast to C. rufilabris, which is better for high humidity areas. and attacks more than 100 insect and spider mite pests. In the warmest areas, there may be 7-8 generations of C. carnea, which means that high populations of this natural enemy can build up from early season inoculative releases, particularly when insect pests (e.g. on early cover crops) provide honeydew needed to stimulate egg laying by this species. Mated females can lay 20-40 eggs per night, and have the ability to take evasive aerial dives to avoid bats. Eggs or larval C. carnea are recommended for field release on a weekly basis to create overlapping generations in the field. The larvae do most of the pest eating, pupate, and turn into adults. Adult C. carnea have a strong flight urge, and may fly for 3-4 hours each of their first two nights before being ready to settle down, feed and lay eggs (fifth day after adult emergence). This is an evolutionary adaptation to following their major food source, aphids, in a downwind migration. This nomadic strategy is suited for rapidly changing temporary habitats, and allows C. carnea to avoid its own natural enemies. These evening downwind flights are visible 1-5 feet above crop level; insect honeydew (or the amino acid tryptophan in fields) induces C. carnea to reverse direction and even fly upwind into the odor plume to search the upper parts of plants. Pea aphid honeydew is one of the best egg laying stimulants for C. carnea -- hence, Rincon-Vitova recommends soil-building legume cover and alternate host crops with pea aphids are highly recommended. =C. carnea lays single eggs near aphid colonies and uses the breakdown product of the amino acid tryptophan, indoacetaldehyde, to orient to honeydew. lacewing book (LB): p. 86 C. carnea feed greedily on sunflower and corn pollen, also flower nectar, and honeydew of Planococcus citri (enhances fecundity) -- i.e. does best when pollen and pests. aphid honeydew stimulates fecundity. early spring adults emerg will even scrape dried honeydew frm leaves, can move on to pollens when plnts begin blossoming. c carnea disagr on whether adults just eat nectar and pollen, some say also aphids. (LB - p. 89) protein hydrolysate of yeast increases longevity and fecundity bec of yeast amino acids, polypeptides, b-vitamins. Wheast = dried yeast and whey proteins; mix with water and sucrose. corn pollen plus sucrose (p.90) works as well [might dust corn pollen onto grapes etc.]. yeast hydrolysates plus sucrose good. good egg production when pollen mixed w sugar, nectar or honeydew. lays about 300 eggs. C. carnea is also adaptable enough to overwinter, though it will migrate when faced with shortages of food (hence, a variety of continuous blooming cover and strip intercrops are recommended to provide a continuous supply of pollen, nectar and insect foods). Cover crops (even weeds) and low vegetation provide C. carnea overwintering sites. Food supplements late in the season enhance overwintering survival; additional food supplements early in season help emerging overwintering adults survive and lay eggs for next generation. (give pop. increase numbers from one lacewing to support this strategy) C. carnea populations can be monitored by suction sampling (D-Vac) of low plants, counting numbers of eggs per random sample of plant material, beating branches over a tray to sample larvae or by sweep net sample. Peak flights can be observed just after sunset from shady roosts like rows of sunflowers along field margins. Chrysoperla carnea can live for almost 3 months, longer when overwintering C. carnea adults overwinter in dark dry places like dead leaf litter and undersides of bark. Successful overwintering requires a high intake of foods like corn pollen during the short days of late summer. Adults preparing to overwinter turn brownish-yellow and cluster together. In Germany, growers purchase commercial overwintering shelters stuffed with wheat straw and painted red or brown to attract lacewings. CHRYSOPERLA RUFILABRIS Though best known for aphid control in tree (e.g. pecans) and field crops in the South and East, Chrysoperla rufilabris is also a valuable ally against tough pests like sweetpotato whitefly in cotton and other crops from Texas to California's irrigated deserts. C. rufilabris comes on strong in mid to late summer, when C. carnea (best early season species) decline in number. Chrysoperla rufilabris is adapted to humid areas, but irrigation raises plant canopy humidity enough in western deserts to make C. rufilabris a valuable ally against tough pests like sweetpotato whitefly in California's Imperial Valley. Rincon-Vitova's Chrysoperla rufilabris breeding stock is collected from heavily sprayed pecan growing areas in Georgia in the hopes of introducing genes for pesticide resistance to benefit growers making the transition from pesticides to greater reliance on biological control. Adult Chrysoperla rufilabris lay 10-30 eggs per day, and, lacking the strong migratory wanderlust of C. carnea, stay in release areas. There are 2-3 generation per year. Crapemyrtle is a good alternate host plant for C. rufilabris. CHRYSOPERLA COMANCHE Chrysoperla comanche, a close relative of C. rufilabris, dominates many California vineyards, particularly later in the season when C. carnea goes into diapause (resting state). C. comanche is still a relatively unknown species, but University of California studies (Daane et al.) reveal amazing pest control potential. For example, one female Chrysoperla comanche fed a leafhopper diet can lay 1,100 eggs, making explosive population growth possible for control of mid- to late-season pests. Alternatively, inoculating a field with 20 adult female C. comanche per acre is the equivalent of releasing 20,000 lacewing eggs. Adding a lacewing food supplement spray to fields boosts C. comanche egg laying by 150%. RELEASE BASICS Releases should start when pest levels are low, then every one to four weeks as needed. 1 lacewing can produce 200 in 30 days, 40,000 progeny in 60 days (hence, start releases as soon as first pest insects avail. pitch for periodic inoculation. carryover effect: work in second year bec fewer overwintering pests = residual effect. several repetitions of small releases to produce overlapping generations, starting early in season = best. lacewing larvae require high humidity when young, so keep plants well watered. NOTE MAJOR EFFECTS OF SMALL DIFFERENCES IN TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON LACEWING EFFECTIVENESS. one week delay in control with release of eggs, as need to reach voracious second and third instar eggs that are most effective; releasing larvae shortens delay. 1:1.3 ratio needed for egg releases, vs 1:5 or 1:30 w larvae; need lower pred:prey ratio vs large than small aphid pop. taking delay period into account, can use either eggs or larvae, deciding factor is which easiest, and eggs can survive a delay in mail; may need to make aphid control releases each 4-6 weeks. can easily lose a third of eggs to predators. For aphids on vegetables, 300 000-800 000/ha of second instar larva for the best results, the lower number sufficing for releases at the beginning of the period of infestation by the pest requiring control. several ways shipped and several ways to distribute on farms or gardens as introduction to next paragraphs: Rincon lit: eggs shipped so to be just hatching or close to hatching on receipt. gen mix w packing mat like rice hulls or grnd corn grit and moth eggs as food source to feed any hatching larvae. packing mat provides sep so less cannabilism and increases volume of contents to facilitate application. after egg receipt, customer keep them 80-90 F for timely hatch, and release as soon as hatching evident. cool refrig to delay hatch not recomm, though can stagger releases a bit. eggs go from green to grey over 5 day period and then white on hatch. tiny larv can be seen crawling on sides of container. apply by hand or hand held blower, ground rig/hopper system, helicopter or aircraft (fixed wing). lacewing pupae: look like tiny white or green balls. as soon as see golden eye green adults with gossamer wings, open in release area so adults can crawl or fly onto plants where desired. pupae can hatch out over course of week, so might repeat opening container and releasing daily. extra pupae in each container. keep up moisture levels in garden. corn cob grit also used and can hand broadcast, artif diet to attr and keep or plnt corn, whose pollen and nectar. early suppress pahids, mite armyworm moth eggs, Helitohis. two releases a week apart to create overlapping generations. also may be mixed in vermiculite. can sprinkle through cone funnel to distribute. cards or tapes of lacewing eggs. masking tape works on poinsettias. card w 5,000 or 10,000 eggs perforated for division into 30 one inch squares. 100 or 200 larv per sq, respectively, attached or nestled among leaves or branches. 6 x 1 inch tapes in sets of 10 w 500-1,000 eggs/tape. tapes form bracelet size loop for looping onto branches. also hexcel units w lacewing larv -- peel back covering little by little and tap larvae onto plnts or life out and place w small brush. one larve/plnt for mild infestation. larv pupate in about 2 wks, so good idea to start another generation of larv then to work while others pupate and create overlapping generations. LOOSE EGGS: Lacewings are shipped as mixed species of eggs and will begin hatching within 1 to 4 days after delivery. Hatch rate is fastest at an incubation temperature of 80!F to 90!F (such as in a small ice chest with a hot water bottle). If there is no food supply, the larvae will begin to eat each other. The eggs are dispersed in a carrier of either vermiculite or rice hulls along with moth eggs for food for the early hatchers. At first signs of hatching, sprinkle them as close to pest infestations as possible. Small amounts can also be placed in paper cups and stapled to leaves. EGGS ON CARDS: Releasing newly-hatched larvae in vines, shrubs and trees is made easier when lacewing eggs are shipped glued on cards or masking tape or as 500 pre-fed larvae in hexcel units. When lacewing are shipped on cards, 5,000 or 10,000 per card, each one-inch square holds an average of approximately 170 and 330 eggs respectively. EGGS ON TAPES: Lacewing tapes are made up in units of 20 tapes 6 inches long and 3/4 inches wide with waxed paper on each end so that the ends can be conveniently attached to form a bracelet around an infested limb or vine. Each tape holds an average of approximately 250 lacewing eggs with equal volume of moth egg diet and corn grit to cover the exposed sticky areas on the tapes. Tapes should be distributed in foliage as soon as larvae start crawling on the tapes. HEXCEL UNITS: The release method for hexcel units simply involves peeling off the organdy cloth cover and lifting or brushing each larvae onto the plant with a fine paint-brush. Pupae in hexcel and lacewing adults are also available. FURTHER DETAIL ON RELEASE METHODS: virtues of each release method. give people a range to choose from. (Jan Rincon wants included): 1.) challenge of getting lacewings into trees (Tedders computerized model plane; Stahmann's hopper on seat of plane, can open and close release valve bombing each tree (minimize what hits ground, though with ground covers growing alternate insect prey, will not waste what misses trees, except for ants). Can adapt pollen hoppers (Gallo did this for awhile, but now decided to walk it on) 2.) leafblower on back of pickup truck for almond trees and vineyards 3.) vineyard funnel 4.) ketchup bottle method - kind of like salt shaker method of spritzing it on with squeeze bottle. works for lacewings eggs or predatory mites in corn grit. now used by Gallo. how many squeezes = application rate. storing at low temp: for egg, adult. eggs 14 days at 10 C and 75% RH; after 2 wks some egg loss and hatching. Two weeks = max practical egg storage. can briefly suspend eggs in water, salt solutions or agar suspensions during handling and spraying. Larvae - no more than 16 hrs. storage recommended at low temp.; cannabilism of larvae a problem. lacewing book: STORING FOR BIOCONTROL: low temp tolerance of eggs. C. canea less than 3 wks at 8 C when one day old, two weeks at 10 C and 75% R.H. Cocoons can be stored for several months at 6 C. RELEASE RATES Release rates depend on the degree of infestation, the presence of other biological controls, and other factors, but a guideline is 5,000 to 50,000 per acre per season or 1,000 per 2,500 square feet of garden area. Some research suggests that releasing during cool temperatures, particularly in the evening, and misting foliage enhances survival of larvae. About 15-20 times more eggs than larvae were needed to achieve the same decrease in aphid populations. Need more eggs than larva when trying to control pest populations, as it takes a week for eggs to become large enough larvae to make a dent in pest populations; during a hot summer, a pest population can more than double in that week; also there can be egg loss to predators, particularly ants. one week delay in control with release of eggs, as need to reach voracious second and third instar eggs that are most effective; releasing larvae shortens delay. bec of cannibalism and reduced egg hatch rate, higher numbers of eggs than larvae needed. 1:1.3 ratio needed for egg releases, vs 1:5 or 1:30 w larvae; need lower pred:prey ratio vs large than small aphid pop. taking delay period into account, can use either eggs or larvae, deciding factor is which easiest, and eggs can survive a delay in mail; may need to make aphid control releases each 4-6 weeks. ATTRACTANTS & FOOD SUPPLEMENTS shelter provided by weeping lovegrass windbreaks in High Plains a good refuge for green lacewings and other beneficials. Chrysoperla species need insect honeydew to stimulate egg laying, and this can best be assured by a diverse habitat with cover crops and alternate host crops providing aphids, whiteflies, mealybugs and other honeydew producing insects when the crop plants are not loaded with pests. Growing crops conducive to pea aphids for C. carnea (lacewing.raw p. 8, line 43) lacewing adults can disperse many miles by wind during the evening flight period, and are attracted to land and lay eggs by adult food sources such as aphid honeydew). Food and attractant sprays like tryptophan and whey have produced great lacewing increases in small areas (100 m2) (e.g. spray onto infested areas to attract and concentrate adult lacewings, which will lay eggs that will hatch into larvae providing pest control in 2-3 weeks) of vineyards, and have the potential to make a big contribution to pest control, as each lacewing eats more than 250 fourth and fifth instar leafhoppers. [See =IPMP 12(4):12 & 13(5/6):18 for more detail on attractants etc.] Pollens increase adult lacewing life spans and egg laying. Corn and ice plant are among the best pollen sources, while sunflowers are a favored gathering place. Ice plant pollen is among the best for increasing Chrysoperla carnea egg laying, while corn pollen is used to prepare for autumn migration. hard to beat commercial yeast hydrolysates like wheast; 4:7:10 brewer's or baker's yeast hydrolysate (or whey substitute):sugar:water in weekly spray onto alfalfa attr more lw adults and eggs - dual role as attractant and adult food; can spray by plane or by hand on corn, cotton, alfalfa; attr honeydew feeding spp., not those predaceous as adults; a broad habitat spectrum spp makes it good; high repro potential plus can sustain when prey is low w food sprays; continuous augmentation necessary so synchronize w pest occurrence] FOOD SPRAYS: (LW book); weekly applic of protein hydrolysate of brewers yeast, sucrose, choline chloride and water tripled number of LW eggs in alfalfa, and reduced spotted alfalfa and pea aphids; more than 3 times as many LW attr w spray than without. ditto fermented whey increase LW adults and eggs and decrease aphids in alfalfa. sim exper in cotton decrease bollworms and dmged bolls. need 4.5 kg of fermented whey prod plus 4.5 kg sugar in 25-40 liters of water each 1-2 weeks to attract and induce oviposition from C. carnea. also been tried in corn vs ECB, apples vs. green fruitworms, grapes against leafhoppers;pepper, potatos and alfalfa vs aphids. presupposes area nat pop of LW allowed to build up, and this concentrates them where wanted. i.e. early season inoculations first. Ken S. Hagen (Div. Biol. Control, Univ. California, Albany, CA 94706): Predatory =Collops beetle males and green lacewings are attracted to cotton by a combination of two senses: vision and olfactory detection of caryophyllene. Green lacewing attraction to honeydew can be simulated with artificial honeydew food sprays (e.g. yeast hydrolysates), or a tryptophan attractant product can be used. With a combination of tryptophan and sugar, lacewings fly into fields at night, though a growing crop or habitat signal is also needed (e.g. carophyllene in cotton). Cutting a growing hay crop results in fewer lacewings. When a habitat signal is restored, lacewings will fly into the wind to find honeydew or tryptophan and carophyllene. Hagen says that tryptophan and carophyllene can be put into almost any crop to attract green lacewings.&& Hagen in Proc Summer Inst., p. 173 -- yeast hydr mix phytotox to cotton, so put this artif honeydew on feeding stations in cotton fields to double number of eggs in area. then found that yeast plus whey byproduct w sugar could substitute for yeast hydrolysate andwas not phytotoxic. help vs aphids and heliothis zea. also bell peppers vs green peach aphid: sprayed 4 times begin July 15 when aphid just start to land on peppers, -- first spray date most critical, as 2 weeks later were twice as many lacewing eggs, and hatching larvae start decreasing aphid pop (which was in population increase trend in control). caryophyllene in clove extract and aroma of mature cotton attracts C. carnea. Caryophyllene/clove oil - (clip in lacewing file) also part of aroma of mature cotton, attracts common green lacewing, Chrysopa carnea, as well as Collops beetle, major predators of caterpillars eggs and small larvae (e.g. corn earworm), thrips, spider mites, aphids and other pests (see cotton pred and par booklet). major limit is not water soluble, and evaporates fast. caryophyllene can be used as a liquid or as caryophyllenyl alcohol form, a wax-like solid. works best as early season attractant, before plants put out lots of competing aromas. apply in trap or bait station along with wheast. 0.2 g/trap enough. also trytophan solutation attracts adults. 2 g tryptophan too attractive when added to sucrose, so that come from greater distance, expend more energy, gets protein starved females, less eggs. random searching lady beetles also find wheast, and use it to produce eggs. See Cotton Pred & Par book for specifics on LW foods. COLORADO POTATO BEETLE)/FIELD AND ROW CROPS (Divide in 2) In USDA-ARS studies, placing 10 green lacewing larvae (second instar) on each potato plant when Colorado potato beetle eggs began hatching prevented damage (potatoes without lacewings were defoliated; other natural enemies were excluded). effectiveness of Chrysoperla carnea was 85-96%, while that of Chrysopa sinica was 81-89%. In the west of the Ukrainian SSR, where the pest develops on potato, usually in 2 generations, Chrysoperla carnea can be released against the 1st generation 2-3 times at intervals of 10-15 days at a rate of 120 000-150 000 individuals/ha in years with moderate temperatures and high air humidity. In the south of the Ukrainian SSR and in the Moldavian SSR, the predator can be released against the 2nd generation of the pest on aubergine, 3-4 times depending on weather conditions and at intervals of 7-10 days, in the 2nd or early 3rd larval instar at a rate of 120 000-180 000 individuals/ha and a predator-prey ratio of 1:20. potato plants. The two releases were necessary because the predator larvae pupated after 10-14 days and control was still required. The effectiveness of the predator was reduced by heavy rains with strong winds, excessive irrigation and also temperatures exceeding 30 deg C, which induced the larvae to migrate in search of more favourable conditions. field test, second-instar larvae were released twice at a predator:prey ratio of 1:10 Soviet eggplant and potatoes: Eggs of the predator released in a ratio of 1:1 with those of the host gave 74% population reduction. First-instar larvae released in ratios of 1:1 to 1:5 destroyed 86-91% of the eggs in 5-10 days, and second- and third-instar larvae destroyed 87-100% of them. For aphids on vegetables, 300 000-800 000/ha of second instar larva for the best results, the lower number sufficing for releases at the beginning of the period of infestation by the pest requiring control. Soviet: for aphids need at least 1:5-10 predator:aphid ratio for 2nd instar for 72% decrease peach aphid on tomatoes and 43-97% in 5 days on eggplant or 94-98% on pepper in 6 days. 1.5:1 needed vs. pea aphids (thus, inoculation method best). cabbage aphid, which is difficult to get because of its waxy cover, 74% decrease. On vegies, pref for aphids, then will go after thrips and finally spider mites. BB - 247-361,000 2 to 3 day old larva/ha for 83-96% control cotton bollworm and tobacco budworm. 1:1 (second and third instar larv) for pea aphid decline of 90-98%, 71-74% cabbage aphid decline on cabbage. 1:25-50 gets about 50% control (ok for augmentation). 1:1 or 1:5 for 86-90% decrease eggs and young CPB, thrips, aphids in tomato, eggplant, pepper, potato. Soviets use w expectation of controlling pest w second or third predator generation after initial establ = seasonal colonization. Field trials were carried out in the Azerbaijan SSR, USSR, in 1980 in which 3-4-day-old eggs and 1st- and 2nd-instar larvae of Chrysopa carnea [Chrysoperla carnea] were released against sucking pests and the cotton moth [Heliothis armigera] in a 1-ha cotton field. Three releases were made at a predator-prey ratio of 1:1. A week after the 1st release, the abundance of aphids [? Aphis gossypii] had fallen by 98.5%, that of thrips by 95.6%, that of spider mites [Tetranychus sp.] by 100%, that of eggs of H. armigera by 100% and that of young larvae of this pest by 50%. In fields in which the predator had not been released, the abundance of aphids increased 1.8 times, that of thrips 1.6 times, that of Tetranychus sp. 2.4 times, that of eggs of H. armigera 1.5 times and that of young larvae 2.3 times over the same period. The 2nd and 3rd releases caused even greater reductions in pest abundance. Azerbaijan cotton - release of eggs and larv at 1:1 ratio, within week had more than 95% decrease in aphids, 98% decrease in thrips, and 100% decrease spider mites and bollworm eggs, 50% decrease young bollworm caterpillars. For practical purposes, it is suggested that if the aphid:predator ratio was 80:1 in the cotton fields, chemical control could be delayed. 12/L/28 - Predators moved from rape and wheat fields to cotton fields in mid- to late May. Surveys conducted in 1978-83 showed densities of 258-880 aphids and 4-12 predators/100 plants, giving aphid:predator ratios of 1:65-1:73. Aphids were nearly completely controlled in June, and chemical control measures were generally not necessary. The annual cumulative number of noctuid eggs was generally 600/100 plants. Natural enemies were able to suppress the numbers of 3rd-instar larvae to 5/100 plants. add pink bollowrm to pests eaten. Uzbekistan (USSR) on the value of Chrysoperla carnea - second-instar nymphs at a predator:prey ratio of 1:5 or 1:10, or eggs at a ratio of 1:1, complete control resulted in 13 days. There was only 76% reduction of aphids when the ratio of nymphs was 1:15 and none when it was 1:25, although in the last case aphid numbers increased by a factor of 6.8 with no release; when the ratio was 1:50, aphid numbers trebled. A ratio of 1:10 was evidently optimal. Field tests were begun in the Tashkent district, where the predator was released at this ratio as second-instar nymphs. It succeeded in containing aphid numbers for a time, whereas there was an increase in other plots, but the numbers of aphids then trebled. A second release was made, and the number of aphids fell after 3-4 days, but increased again to the original level after 10 days. Where no releases were made, aphid numbers increased and at the end of the test were 5 times greater than at the beginning. Effectiveness of the two releases of the predator was calculated to be 64%. Observations on times of appearance showed that the aphids appeared in May and the predator not until June. It was concluded that the predator should be released during the early period of cotton infestation, when there are only 10-15 aphids/plant. If this was done, the mean number of second-instar predators required should be 150 000-200 000/ha. It was noted that 15 days after release, the predator was 1.3-3.4 times as numerous as on untreated plots and after 40 days 5 times as numerous; apparently cotton fields provided favourable conditions for the chrysopid, even though in June up to 22% of the eggs of C. carnea were parasitised by Telenomus acrobates Giard. It is concluded that use of Chrysoperla in early spring is promising for the control of aphids on cotton. 1:15 predator:aphid ratio for green peach aphid control when predator released at beginning of infestation. may need 1:1 with eggs (for reasons under release section). C. carnea larvae vs two-spotted mites, Tetranychus urticae, in Turkmenia (USSR) cotton at 1:80 for 99.6% reduction, while in untreated plots mite populations increased by 750%. At 1:50 there was 99.5% reduction in cotton aphids, versus doubling of aphid population in untreated plots. second instar at 1:5 or 1:10, even 1:100 within 6 days. 1:25 or 40 eggs/m2 to control Myzus persicae aphid on asparagus. In greenhouse, intro 1:25 kept aphids under control for 3 months; or fewer predators and a low dose of selective aphicide like primicarb. (soap or water sprays could also be used in IPM program). Lacewing book: Soviets use to control aphids on vegetable crops, like green peach and cowpea aphid on peppers, which decrease 94-98% six days after release of second instar larvae. 1:5 pred:prey ratio also provides good results on tomatoes and eggplant vs green peach aphid: 72% less aphid on tomatos, 44% less on eggplant. 1.5:1 ratio needed to control pea aphid on peas. 1:1 ratio needed for 74% aphid decrease on fall cabbages. 1:1 ratio of LW eggs reduce CPB by 74%, and rlease of first instars at 1:1 to 1:5 ratios destroy 86-91% CPB eggs (eggplnts, potatoes). 1:20 release decrease CPB larv 95% or eggplant, 85% on potato. 1:10 also effective. releases of larvae effective, eggs not. USA - LW reduced buckthorn aphid on potatoes up to 96% at 84,000/ha; 83% decrease green peach aphid, but key potato aphid pest not affected. Poland and China good results on apples to control European red mite; release of 1 first instar larva per 10-25 leaves greatly reduces and kept mite pop very low. Grow well in grain crops (e.g. wheat, barley, grain sorghum), can be inoculated there for aphid control, and will move over to cotton or vegetables, soybeans etc. planted later. field insectary concept. (lw book): interplntings of forage sorghum w cabbage led to 10-fold increase in number of LW eggs on cabbage, and even more if also use food sprays. strategies like using aphids as alternate prey to build up large numbers of lw that will then control target caterpillar. The role of Chrysopa carnea (Steph.) as a predator of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on sugar beet Beta vulgaris was demonstrated in six greenhouse experiments using different predator/prey ratios. Releases of early second stage Chrysopa larvae at the predator/prey ratios of 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and 1:40 successfully controlled M. persicae . Each Chrysopa release at these ratios completely eliminated the pest. During the spring-summer period, the initial ratio of predator to prey should be 1:15 on most fast-growing crops but 1:50 on celery and dill, and during the autumn-winter period it should be 1:10 on spinach beet, 1:25 on celery and 1:30 on lettuce. outdoor (also below is under ghouse): Aphids (Aphis fabae and Myzus persicae: Hom., Aphididae) on parsley (Petroselinum crispum: Umbelliferae) were successfully controlled with C.carnea when the predator/prey ratio was 1:27. On green pepper (Capsicum annuum: Solanaceae) the corresponding ratio was 1:3. To be successful, treatment had to be started when the number of aphids was still low. The effect of control could be seen about 2 wk after the start of treatment, and lasted for 4-6 wk. Control was impaired by ants (Hym., Formicidae). On parsley treatment was successful when Chrysopa was applied at a rate of 230 eggs/m2. TROUNCING TREE PESTS In apples and pears, green lacewings destroy pear psylla, thrips, spider mites, aphids, mealybugs, scale crawlers and eggs of caterpillars like the notorious codling moth. In Indiana studies, green lacewings destroyed 20% of codling moth eggs on apples, making lacewings a good 1-2 punch, along with Rincon-Vitova's Trichogramma egg parasites, for codling moth control (Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc., 1975). C. ruf - 50% reduction in aphids on pecan w 660 egg/larv per tree, provided fire ant pop not too high (can eat). compares fav w chem costs, and recomm for landscape tree owners by Texas agric. comm. Use ant barriers on trees to keep ants off lacewing eggs place in trees. barriers on tree trunks also stop movement of adult pecan weevils. Three well-timed spring and summer lacewing egg releases in alternate years are a proven way to keep mealybugs under control in pears. one of first definitive release studies in late 1940s in USA involved releasing C. carnea eggs in crowns of pear trees to control grape mealybug; substantial decrease in fruit infestation w 3 well-timed releases of 250 eggs per tree.. Release of the chrysopid, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens, at a rate of ca. 335,000 eggs per hectare, reduced significantly the number of apterous adults and nymphs of the green apple aphid, Aphis pomi DeGeer, on dwarf apple trees in Ontario, Canada. Greater reduction in aphid numbers occurred in 1984 than in 1985, and the efficiency of the predator might have been influenced by the predator:prey ratios (1:10 and 1:19) used and by the mean daily temperature that occurred during the test periods. Distributing 1000 and 1500 eggs of Chrysoperla carnea per tree per week to mite-infested peach trees in greenhouses in Ontario resulted in the elimination of motile stages of Tetranychus urticae from 3 of 4 release trees after 5 and 4 weeks, respectively. Re-infestation of these trees during the 5th to 8th week after release was probably due to eggs that were not consumed by the predator. intercrop/strip crop/ground covers -- C. carnea nymphs may prefer cover crops to vines, and move down into cover crops (in almonds and peaches, there are 100 times more lacewing eggs with cover crops). Cover crops are a particularly good way to increase numbers of green lacewings. In California almonds and peaches, lacewing eggs are 100 times more numerous with a cover crop than without. (see pecan paper). Rincon-Vitova's staff entomologists will be happy to discuss specific legume, cereal, grass and green manure cover crops, as the choices vary from area to area. For example, in Georgia annuals like hairy vetch and crimson clover are used because they die out in summer (i.e. don't compete with the trees for moisture) and regrow in the fall. In California, lana vetch, hairy vetch and cereal rye oats. Where cover crops are mown, an alternate strip harvest is recommended. This involves mowing alternate strips as they come into bloom, allowing the mowed strip to regrow before mowing its unmowed strip counterpart. In this way, unsprayed refugia are always maintained for beneficials. timing is sometimes everything: e.g. to get scale crawlers spray attr food spray so larvae of lacewings present when scale eggs just begin to hatch. worked on scale insects on olive trees in Italy (C. carnea important). adding tryptophan enhances food spray. 250 eggs/tree = 27,000/acre; 3 releases for total of 81,000 reduced mealybug infestation on orchard trees from 58-68% (over 60%) to 12%. timing. TREES: egg stage most economical to purchase; making sure get most bang for buck. can use spoon to sprinkle (lw plus rice hulls) in crotch of tree; works well in pecans, where low branches accessible and bark has rough texture. open or punctured ajax cups can be used to hold small qunat of eggs while larv emerg. eggs on squares can fixed inside small paper cup that is hung from knotted string through bottom of cup. can also staple cups or squares to leaves. adults or pupae in hexcel units (hatch into adults), which can fly into tall trees and lay eggs another alternative (ok c. ruf, which stays in area; c. carn migratory but may not be a problem in large acreage w adult releases, partic where wheast, trypto etc used). w adults may have 5 day lag til lay eggs, another week for hatch. call for custom advice on using aircraft or remote control airplanes. for tall indoor trees, can help with directions for helium balloon delivery (separate string controls release lever of scoop). leaf blowers also work in orchards. hppy to discuss particulars over phone. leaf blowers for eggs and hatching larv can get 15-18 ft up. Masking tape for low growing ornamentals where ants are not a problem. eggs w corn cob grit on strips of masking tape that are hung in branches. ant protection critical. lacewing larv packaged in rice hulls w moth eggs mixed in as food. at 70-80 F, eggs should start hatching 4-8 days from date marked on package. very tiny brownish-gray alligator-shaped larvae. onto leaves or branches, not want falling to ground. Stahmann pecans: as native beneficials become reestablished can reduce numbers of lacewings released. higher numbers first few years, partic wh chem used. As chem elim, reestabl natural balance. According to Louis Tedders of the USDA in Georgia, while biocontrol is not 100% effective, "it's less expensive and more effective than chemicals." GRAPE & VINE CROPS Control of difficult pests like grape and variegated leafhoppers is aided by green lacewing releases. The average lacewing ate 250 leafhoppers in California grape studies. Best results are obtained by closely monitoring vineyards, and timing lacewing releases to coincide with emergence of each new pest generation, beginning in spring with the first leafhopppers. [Daane et al. Nov 90 Grape Grower]: increase in lacewings may be assoc w cover crops or proximity of almond or peach orchard to grape vineyard. Daane et al. (Mar 92 Grape Grower): say that 4,000 eggs per acre corresponds to 8 first-instar larvae per grapevine. need monitoring system to time releases for when leafhopper nymphs available. grapes - 35-75,000/acre distrib in 5 releases recomm w cover crop. useful in almost ev crop. can buy mix of carnea and rufilabris. GREENHOUSES AND INTERIORS compatible w soap, bug vacs Soviet grhous success on chrysanthemums (green peach aphids), also peppers, cukes, celery, lettuce, eggplant. green lw larv most efffective in dense foliage where pests evenly distributed over plants. egg papers can be sout on plnts. control not successful on plnts where small populatins of pest cause damage to certain parts of plant only, e.g. aphids on rosebuds. all low plants with dense foliage, like parsley and lettuce very suitable for green lacewing larvae. perhaps a chart on ghouse release rates: 2-6 larvae per plant for 98% aphid control in grhouse snapdragons. citrus mealybugs on ornamentals in greenhouses. Hussey & Scopes blurb on mixing predators: Hussey & Scopes glasshouse bc book: 5-6 chem trtmnts, ea 8-10 days for aphid control. often mix Aphidoletes aphidimyza, aphid midge, with green lacewings, as former less migratory and will control low aphid densities after lacewings knock down. cucumber econ threshold is 1,000 A. gossypii per plant; each C. carnea larv eats 200-300 green peach or cotton aphids. periodic releases, as tend to disappear and not permanent establ. Aulacorthum solani control on lettuce need 1:30; 1:25 for A. gossypii on celery, 1:10 for green peach aphid on leaf beet, 1:100 on carnation. 1:50 one-day old larvae for greenhouse chrysanthemums with green peach aphid. Eur - veg in ghouse, strat = release early before aphid pop gets out of hand. may need multiple releases under glass (try wheast stations). Early 1970s Kansas: Eight lacewing (Chrysopa carnea) larvae per snapdragon plant, released 4-at-a-time twice during 8 weeks, controlled aphids (Myzus persicae) effectively. Two initial sprays of malathion or nicotine sulphate at 1-week intervals followed by the release of 4 lacewing larvae per plant were also effective. Lacewing larvae in a 21 deg C-greenhouse required a week longer to control aphids effectively than those in a 24 deg -greenhouse. lacewing larvae Chrysopa carnea to control aphids on greenhouse vegetable eggplant. In 2 experiments that continued for 14 and 19 weeks, M.persicae was successfully controlled by 4 and 7 Chrysopa releases respectively of early second stage Chrysopa larvae at a predator/prey ratio of 1:5. The Chrysopa releases at this ratio repeatedly resulted in virtually total elimination of aphid populations. The intervals between the Chrysopa treatments necessary to control the aphids varied between 2 and 5 weeks and were greatly affected by the presence or absence of an aphid source of infestation in the greenhouse. In another experiment with different predator/prey ratios, it was shown that large reductions in the number of aphids could be achieved with the ratios 1:10 and 1:20, but not with 1:40. melon aphid. Chrysoperla carnea was completely effective only when released at 1:20 on greenhouse cucumber. Green peppers: a ratio of one egg to 1.3 aphids was necessary. Control was most effective if there were fewer than 100 aphids/plant when the eggs were distributed. The Chrysopid did not maintain itself at a level sufficient to afford effective control, and introductions were repeated at intervals of 3-4 weeks. In greenhouse experiments in the USSR, treatment of larvae of Chrysopa carnea [Chrysoperla carnea] with hydroprene prior to their release on cucumber plants prevented downwards migration even at very high temperatures and greatly lengthened the life of the predators, increasing the number of aphids destroyed by an individual as much as 4-fold. In larger-scale experiments, subsequently carried out in commercial greenhouses, releases of treated individuals at a 1:10 predator-prey ratio resulted in over 90% reduction in aphid numbers within about a week, although on the commercial scale a further release was later required. Finland: Myzus persicae and Aphis fabae on parsley were successfully controlled with Chrysopa carnea when the predator/prey ratio was 1:27. On green pepper (Capsicum annuum) the corresponding ratio was 1:3. To be successful, treatment had to be started when the number of aphids was still low. The effect of control could be seen about 2 weeks after the start of treatment, and lasted for 4-6 weeks. Control was impaired by ants. On parsley treatment was successful when Chrysopa was applied at a rate of 230 eggs/m2. green peach aphid on eggplant for 14-19 weeks, use 4-7 gw releases respectively at 1:5 early 2nd instar for total aphid elim. repeat releases is theme for ghouse. 2-5 weeks between releases, dep on aphid supply. even 1:10-20 produce large reductions in aphid populations, but not 1:40.